Introduction: In the original Hebrew text, the books of 1st and 2nd Chronicles were a single set of scrolls, called “The annals of the days.” Around 400 A.D., Jerome’s Latin Vulgate changed the title to “The Chronicles of the Entire Sacred History.” The modern title shortened Jerome’s title. By Jewish tradition, Ezra was the author. Because the two books conclude with the return of the Jews from Babylon (2 Chron. 26:23), the author wrote the book sometime after Persian king Cyrus the Great’s reign (circa, 559 and 529 B.C.). After 70 years of captivity, the Jews returned without power, wealth, or a king. Indeed, they lived under the control of a Persian governor (Ezra 5:3; 6:6). Against this backdrop, the author sought to remind the Jews of several themes.
1) The restoration of the Davidic line. The line of kings through David had come to a temporary end. But God promised that David’s line of kings would have no end: “Your house and your kingdom shall endure before Me forever; your throne shall be established forever.” (2 Sam. 7:16; Jer. 33:17; Ps. 89:4). Chronicles focus on the line of descendants through David for its restoration. Jesus Christ was and is the fulfillment of God’s promise (Lk. 1:33; Rev. 19:16).
2) God’s faithfulness. After all the Jews had lost, many likely felt that God had abandoned His people. But God promised to never forsake His people (Dt. 31:6). Approximately 17 centuries earlier, God gave the Promised Land to Abraham (Gen. 12:1-3). The author of Chronicles focuses on God’s many fulfilled promises to remind the Jews of God’s faithfulness. The fact that God had restored the Jews to the Promised Land was proof of His faithfulness.
3) God’s active involvement throughout history. Just like today, many Jews saw God as remote and not actively involved in their lives. Chronicles dispels this false myth about God. God was and is actively involved in history. He is also sovereign over every king and country.
4) God’s mercy and grace. Although Chronicles traces the Jews’ history through God’s chosen line, the author reminds the Jews that their election was based upon God’s mercy and grace. The Jews repeatedly sinned and did nothing to earn their elect status (Ps. 55:3; Ecc.7:20).
5) God’s standard for obedience. God’s covenant with the Jews required them to follow His Ten Commandments (Ex. 20; Dt. 5). God promised blessings if the Jews followed the Ten Commandments and progressively severe discipline if they failed to follow them (Lev. 26; Dt. 28). God blessed the Jews when they followed Him and placed their trust in Him. Conversely, He disciplined them when they disobeyed Him or when they placed their trust in the world.
6) God’s standard for holiness. Part of the book focuses on the priesthood and proper Temple worship. Before they were sent into physical captivity, the Jews had placed themselves under the spiritual captivity through idolatry. Chronicles encouraged the Jews to return to God’s holiness (Lev. 11:44-45) and to fulfill their God-given calling as His light to the world (Is. 49:6).
7) The hope of the Messiah. In the Jewish Old Testament, Chronicles was the last book. It retells Jewish history to repeat the promises of hope of the Messiah from its first verses until its last verse. Although many Jews felt defeated, God promised eternal hope through the Messiah.
1 Chronicles 1: God’s Salvation Plan in Adam Through Esau’s Descendants
Introduction: Many find genealogies boring. Thus, many skip the Bible’s genealogies. But some of the Bible’s most interesting messages are hidden in plain sight. “It is the glory of God to conceal a matter, but the glory of kings is to search out a matter.” (Prov. 25:2). “The secret things belong to the LORD our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our sons forever, that we may observe all the words of this law.” (Dt. 29:29). From the genealogies of Adam through Esau’s descendants, God reveals seven lessons regarding His plan for redemption.
First, the hidden meanings behind the names from Adam to Noah reveal that God would come down to Earth to die for mankind’s sins. This reveals that Jesus planned to die for your salvation since the beginning of history. Second, following the Flood, God gave humanity a new beginning through Noah’s three sons. Since the beginning, Jesus has also planned on offering mankind a “new beginning” through His planned death. Third, out of Noah’s descendants, God also gave birth to the first 70 nations. These 70 nations foreshadowed all the nations of the Earth. From the very beginning, Jesus has been in control of all the nations and has offered to redeem all of mankind through His death. Fourth, while Noah’s 70 descendants each formed mighty nations, God used a humble line of descendants leading to Abraham, without any power or influence, for His plan to redeem mankind. From the beginning, God has used the humble to bring mankind’s salvation. Jesus also humbled Himself by taking the form of a bondservant and dying at the cross. Fifth, God also made His covenant through Abraham based upon His grace. Abraham demonstrated that he was unworthy of God’s covenant based upon the children of the flesh that he had through his female servant Hagar and his concubine Keturah. From the beginning, mankind’s flesh has fought against God’s Spirit. God wants you to deny your flesh to receive the fullness of His blessings. Sixth, despite his sin, God kept His promise to Abraham and created a line of chosen descendants through his sons Isaac and Jacob/Israel. Yet, Abraham had to show faith to receive it. God is also faithful to keep His promises to you. Finally, the account concludes with God’s faithfulness in creating a great nation out of Esau. Yet, Esau squandered these blessings by choosing the world over God. From his mistake, God warns that you can also lose your blessings if you walk away from Him and choose the world over Him.
God’s hidden plan for redemption from Adam through Noah’s names. 1 Chronicles begins with the listing of the first ten generations from Adam to Noah. “1Adam, Seth, Enosh, 2 Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, 3 Enoch, Methuselah, Lamech, 4 Noah . . .” (1 Chr. 1:1-4a). Each of these ten names tells the story of Jesus’ plan for mankind’s redemption.
(1) Adam. The name Adam “׳āḏām” “: אָדָם” means “man.” Collectively, his name means “mankind.” At age 130, he had Seth. He lived 930 years (Gen. 5:1-5). By Jewish tradition, he could not live past 1,000 years (God’s day (Ps. 90:4)) because of his sins.
(2) Seth. Seth “שֵׁת,” means “appointed”. At age 105, he had Enosh. As God’s chosen successor after his brother Cain killed his brother Abel, he lived 912 years (Gen. 5:6-8).
(3) Enosh. The name Enosh “אֱנוֹשׁ” means “mortal” or “mortal man.” At age 90, he fathered Kenan. He lived a total of 905 years (Gen. 5:9-11).
(4) Kenan. The name Kenan “קֵינָן” means “sorrow”. At age 70, he fathered Mahalalel. Kenan lived a total of 910 years (Gen. 5:12-14).
(5) Mahalalel. The name Mahalalel “מהללאל” means “the blessed God.” At age 65, he fathered Jared. He lived a total of 895 years before he died (Gen. 5:15-17).
(6) Jared. Jared comes from the verb “ירד” (yarad), a verb meaning to go down, descend, decline. Here, it means either “shall come down” or “he who descended”. At age 162, he fathered Enoch. He lived a total of 962 years before he died (Gen. 5:18-20).
(7) Enoch. The name Enoch “חנוך” means “teaching”. At age 65, he had Methuselah. He lived 365 years. Yet, he never died. Instead, the seventh righteous descendant through Adam was raptured into heaven without dying (Gen. 5:21-24).
(8) Methuselah. The name Methuselah “מְתוּשָׁלַח” means “his death shall bring judgment” or “man of the dart/spear”. At age 187, he fathered Lamech. He died when he was 969 years old (Gen. 5:25-27).
(9) Lamech. The word Lamech למך (lmk) is not a Hebrew word used today. Thus, the meaning of his name is subject to dispute. Today, the English words “lament” and “lamentation” have their origin in his name. His name most likely means “despairing” or “destroyer”. Although Cain had a wicked descendant named Lamech (Gen. 4:20-24), this is a different individual because he is listed amongst the righteous descendants. At age 182, he fathered Noah. He died at age 777 (Gen. 5:25-27).
(10) Noah. In Hebrew, the name Noah “נעה” means “rest” or “comfort”. At age 500, he fathered Shem, Ham, and Japheth. His sons would live through the Flood with their wives (Gen. 5:32).
Each Hebrew name has a special meaning. When combining the names of the first ten generations from Adam to Noah, God reveals the plan for mankind’s salvation. The table below shows the meaning of the names of the first 10 generations from Adam to Noah:
|1ST 10 GENERATIONS||MEANING OF THEIR NAMES|
|MAHALALEL||THE BLESSED GOD|
|JARRED||SHALL COME DOWN|
|METHUSELAH||HIS DEATH SHALL BRING|
|NOAH||REST OR COMFORT|
Placing these words in a single sentence, the Father Almighty revealed the following prediction:
Man [is] appointed mortal sorrow, [but] the Blessed God shall come down teaching [that] His death shall bring [the] despairing rest (or comfort).
The Bible confirms both Jesus and the Trinity. Whom did God predict would die when He referenced “His death”? Jesus Christ! Thus, God foretold His plan of redemption through Adam’s genealogy. Jesus later revealed that the Scriptures all testify about Him. This chapter provides Jesus’ Word to be true: “You search the Scriptures because you think that in them you have eternal life; it is these that testify about Me;” (Jo. 5:39). Some people claim that the Bible is just a collection of stories or myths that mankind made up. It would be hard, however, to imagine a group of Jewish rabbis, centuries ago, conspiring to hide the message of Christ who was not yet living on Earth.2
The hidden meaning behind Adam’s second genealogy. The second account of Adam’s genealogy symbolizes God’s plan to restore mankind to its intended righteousness through the second Adam, Jesus Christ. The first Adam brought about sin and mankind’s death, represented by the lineage in Genesis chapter four: “Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned--for until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.” (Ro. 5:12-13). Centuries later, Christ became the second Adam. “Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.” (Ro. 5:14). He redeemed humanity to restore its lost spiritual inheritance of eternal life: “So also it is written, ‘The first man, Adam, became a living soul.’ The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.” (1 Cor. 15:45; Rev. 1:5). Adam’s second lineage represents the redemption from being born again into God’s image through Christ.
The three fathers gave rebirth to the world. Through the Triune God, the modern world was made possible through three families. Told out of birth order, they included Shem, Ham, and Japheth: “4 Shem, Ham and Japheth.” (1 Chr. 1:4b). Through the account of Noah’s three sons, God reveals that He blessed mankind with a new beginning: “19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole earth was populated.” (Gen. 9:18-19). “1 Now these are the records of the generations of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah; and sons were born to them after the flood.” (Gen. 10:1). “These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, by their nations; and out of these the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.” (Gen. 10:32).
God’s blessing of a new beginning for all mankind. There were exactly eight people on the ark. “[E]ight souls were saved by water.” (1 Pet. 3:20 (b)(KJV)). In the Bible, eight is also a symbol of new beginnings. After a seven-day ordination, a priest’s duties began on the eighth day (Lev. 9:1). A male child is also circumcised on the eighth day (Lev. 12:3). After the seven-day festival of Tabernacles, the people got together to celebrate a new beginning on the eighth day (Lev. 23:36). Jesus also rose on a Sunday, the first day after the Passion Week or the eighth day after it began. Like Noah’s family, Jesus offers you a new beginning. When you accept Him as Savior, you become a “new creation”: “Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come.” (2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 6:15; Eph. 4:24). Through Jesus, this offer extends to all mankind. Are you living as a new creation for Jesus?
Jesus died for all the people of the Earth to find salvation. The book of Chronicles next records the 70 descendants that came through Noah and his three sons (1 Chr. 1:5-23). As set forth below, these 70 descendants each formed a separate nation of peoples. They collectively symbolized all of the nations of the Earth. Jesus came and died so that each person in every nation on Earth would be offered a path to salvation. “For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.” (Jo. 3:16). “For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who beholds the Son and believes in Him will have eternal life, and I Myself will raise him up on the last day.” (Jo. 6:40). “Jesus said to her, ‘I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in Me will live even if he dies,”’ (Jo. 11:25).
God’s plan for evangelism. God set the number of nations according to the number of Jews who came from Jacob/Israel: “When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel.” (Dt. 32:8). The seventy nations therefore correspond to the 70 descendants of Jacob who left Israel for Egypt (Gen. 46:27; Ex. 1:5; Dt. 10:22). The seventy nations also correspond to the 70 elders who governed with Moses (Ex. 24:9; Nu. 11:24; Ez. 8:11). The seventy members of Jacob’s household and the seventy leaders of Israel were meant to be a light to the nations: “I am the LORD, I have called you in righteousness, I will also hold you by the hand and watch over you, and I will appoint you as a covenant to the people, as a light to the nations,” (Is. 42:6). The Jews, however, failed to fulfill this calling. Jesus came as the light of the world (Jo. 8:12). His believers are His light to the lost (Matt. 5:14). When He sent out the 70 disciples in pairs, they symbolically represented the need of all believers to bring His light to every nation on Earth: “Now after this the Lord appointed seventy others, and sent them in pairs ahead of Him to every city and place where He Himself was going to come.” (Lk. 10:1). Through these exact numbers and connections, God reveals that believers are to fill the existing nations with believers: “but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.” (Acts 1:8). Jesus again made this point explicit when He gave the disciples the Great Commission to make disciples amongst the nations. “Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,” (Matt. 28:19). Are you fulfilling your duty to Jesus to help fulfill His Great Commission?
Historical proof of the 70 nations. During the 1st-century, a Jewish-Roman historian named Flavius Josephus published the oldest known listing of connections between each descendant and the known ethnic groups, nations, or tribes who lived in Abraham’s estimated time. Josephus is more widely known today for having recorded Christ’s existence as an actual historical figure from a Jewish perspective. Yet, amongst archeologists, his assignments for the Table of Nations also became the starting point of study for modern Middle East archaeology.3 In most cases, Josephus’ listings have been confirmed. Modern archeologists have only made minor adjustments to Josephus’ listings based upon records that were unknown to him. In reference to the Table of Nations, archaeologist William Albright famously concluded, “The tenth chapter of Genesis ... stands absolutely alone in ancient literature, without a remote parallel, even among the Greeks, where we find the closest approach to a distribution of peoples in a genealogical framework ... The Table of Nations remains an astonishingly accurate document.”4
(Geographic depiction of Josephus’ 100 A.D. correlation of the Table of Nations.)5
The sons of Japheth. Of the seventy nations of Abraham’s world, 14 came through Noah’s third son Japheth. This included 14 ancient nations or peoples of Asia Minor (Turkey) and Europe: “5 The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras. 6 The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Diphath, and Togarmah. 7 The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim and Rodanim.” (1 Chr. 1:5-7; Gen. 10:2-5). With the following chart, each descendant beginning with Noah is sequentially numbered below to reveal the first 70 nations of Abraham’s day. The chart also lists the ancient nation, tribe, or people that each descendant founded. In some cases where the children of each descendant intermarried, the nations are tied to two descendants. The chart also includes the translation for each name. Unlike the table for Adam’s descendants, the chart does not reveal a hidden theological message from the names of each descendant. Thus, the chart was meant to provide a historical listing.
(2) The Descendants of Japheth (translated as opened, enlarged, fair or light)
|3.||Gomer (Gen. 10:2)||- - -||Complete||Ancestor of the Cimmerii peoples of Crimea. They later became the Cimbri in Roman times in northern and western Europe. They later became the Celtic race of the British Isles.6|
|4.||Ashkenaz (Gen. 10:3; 1 Chr. 16; Jer. 51:27)||spreading fire||Scythians / Armenia (north and east of Black Sea7 (later assumed to be the Germans, Saxons and Scandinavians)|
|5.||Riphath (Gen. 10:3; 1 Chr. 1:6)||Spoken or crusher||most likely the Carpathians8|
|6.||Togarmah (Gen. 10:3; 1 Chr. 1:6)||“tribe,” and “arma” for Armenia.||Armenians (Caucasus mountains / eastern Turkey)9|
|7.||Magog (Gen. 10:2; 1Chr. 1:5; Ez. 38:2; 39:6; Rev. 20:8)||- - -||land of Gog or overtopping covering||According to Josephus and Jerome, their descendants were also the Scythians. Others believe that they became the Tatars of Russia. They may have also mixed with others to become the Galatians and the Celts.10|
|8.||Madai (Gen. 10:2)||- - -||middle land||Medes (northwestern Iran), Aryans, most likely they later migrated to India11|
|9.||Javan (Gen. 10:2; 1Chr. 1:5, 7)||- - -||Miry||Ionians, Greeks (southern Greece & western Asia Minor)12|
|10.||Elishah (Gen. 10:4)||Hellas, Greece and Cyprus13|
|11.||Tarshish (Gen. 10:4)||To heat, smelt||Initially, his descendants went to Tarsus in Cilicia. Later, they spread to Tartessus in Spain14|
|12.||Kittim (Gen. 10:4; Jer. 2:10; Ez. 27:6||Possibly Akkadian word for "invaders".||Initially, his descendants went to an island off Cyprus. Later, they spread to Macedonia and Rome15|
|13.||Dodanim (Gen. 10:4; 1 Chr. 1:7)||Rhodes Island (between Cyprus and the mainland of Greece)16|
|14.||Tubal (Gen. 10:2;1 Ch. 1:5)||- - -||Brought||Country of Georgia (east coast of Black Sea)17|
|15.||Meshech (Gen. 10:2; 1 Ch. 1:5)||- - -||drawing out||Central & western Asia Minor, Georgia and Armenia, later Moscow18|
|16.||Tiras (Gen. 10:2; 1 Ch. 1:5)||- - -||Desire||Thrace or the “Tursenioi”, Later, the Etruscans of Italy19|
The accuracy of the list of Japheth’s descendants. As God’s inspired Word, one would expect to find confirmation of these claims outside of the Bible. And that is exactly what archeologists have found in non-Biblical literary sources. The Greeks, for example, also claim to have descended from someone with a name closely associated with the name “Japheth.” In Greek mythology, the god Iapetus “aɪˈæpɪtəs” is also called in ancient Greek Japetus “Ἰαπετός”. He was an alleged titan, the son of the Greek gods Uranus and Gaia. The Greeks considered the sons of Iapetus / Japetus to be mankind’s ancestors.20 While Japheth was just a man, the fact that the Greeks used a similar sounding name for their forefather shows the accuracy of the Bible. Likewise, the Persians / Iranians believe that Madai (who gave up his land allotment in Europe) was the forefather of the Mede nation of Persia. Their descendants merged with the descendants of Shem to create the Medo-Persian empire. The linguistic connections between the Europeans, the Persians, and the Hindus in India suggest that their descendants migrated into India. This can also be verified through Hindu mythology. The Hindus have a similar flood account. The hero of their flood account (Satyavrata) also had three sons. The oldest son “Iyapeti” is closely related to Noah’s oldest son Japheth. The second son “Sharma” is closely related to Shem. The third son “C'harma” is also closely related to Ham. The fact that modern scholars have connected each of these descendants to the great nations or peoples of the ancient world demonstrates that God fulfilled His promise to “enlarge” the territory of Japheth beyond his older brothers: “26 He also said, ‘Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem; and let Canaan be his servant. 27 ‘May God enlarge Japheth, and let him dwell in the tents of Shem; and let Canaan be his servant.’” (Gen. 9:26-27). The accuracy of His promise and the Table of Nations also shows that the Bible is God’s inspired Word. “All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness;” (2 Tim. 3:16). Thus, you also can trust in His Word.
God’s plan to use Japheth’s descendants to bring Jesus’ salvation to mankind. The Jews later interpreted God’s promise to “enlarge” Japheth as applying to the future Greek proselytes.21 God’s promise to “enlarge Japheth” also suggested that they too would be followers of the Messiah: “According to the Targum, this means that the descendants of Japheth will become proselytes in the days of the Messiah, ‘His sons shall be proselytes and dwell in the schools of Shem, and Canaan will be a slave to them.’”22 They further understood that during the Messianic era the believers amongst the descendants of Shem and Japheth would be gathered together under the Messiah’s perfect government. “19 I will set a sign among them and will send survivors from them to the nations: . . And they will declare My glory among the nations. 20 Then they shall bring all your brethren from all the nations as a grain offering to the Lord, on horses, in chariots, in litters, on mules and on camels, to My holy mountain Jerusalem,’ says the Lord, ‘just as the sons of Israel bring their grain offering in a clean vessel to the house of the Lord.’” (Is. 66:19-20). It was this prophesy that allowed Paul’s contemporary named Shimon ben Gamli’el to authorize the Greek Septuagint version of the Torah.23 The early Church writers and the reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin also saw the coming together of the descendants of Shem and Japheth as referencing the Messianic era of Christ.24 Both Jews and Gentiles are offered to share in the blessings offered to Abraham when you believe in Christ: “in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.” (Gal. 3:14). Jesus is also ready to “enlarge” your tent when you labor to help expand the number of believers who will dwell with Him. What are you doing to serve His Kingdom?
The sons of Ham. Of the seventy nations of Abraham’s world, 30 nations came through Ham: “8 The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. 9 The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raama and Sabteca; and the sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan. 10 Cush became the father of Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth. 11 Mizraim became the father of the people of Lud, Anam, Lehab, Naphtuh, 12 Pathrus, Casluh, from which the Philistines came, and Caphtor. 13 Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, Heth, 14 and the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, 15 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, 16 the Arvadites, the Zemarites and the Hamathites.” (1 Chr. 1:8-16; Gen. 10:6-20). Each of these descendants is listed below and correlated to a prior nation or group of peoples. This chart again shows the accuracy of His Word.
(17) The Descendants of Ham (passionate, hot, burnt or dark)
|18.||Cush (Gen. 10:6; 1 Chr. 1:8)||- - -||Black||Ancient Ethiopia / Nubia (modern Sudan) and along both sides of the Red Sea25|
|19.||Seba (Gen. 10:7; 1 Chr. 1:9)||Drunkard||The “Sabeans” off the southwest Arabia (Yemen), Meroe island off Ethiopia, Ethiopia and Sudan26|
|20.||Havilah (Gen. 10:7; 1 Ch. 1:9)||Circle||Western boarder of Babylonia to central Saudi Arabia27|
|21.||Sabtah (Gen. 10:7; 1 Ch. 1:9)||Striking||Ancient Shabwat, capital of Hadramaut in south Arabia; also northern Sudan, parts of Ethiopia and Somalia.28|
|22.||Raamah (Gen. 10:7; 1 Ch. 1:9)||Thunder||Southwest Saudi Arabia and parts of Country of Yemen29|
|23.||Sabteca (Gen. 10:7; 1 Ch. 1:9)||also striking||Country of Yemen30|
|24.||Nimrod (Gen. 10:7; 1 Ch. 1:9)||Rebellion||Babylon, Nineveh31|
|25.||Mizraim (Gen 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:8)||- - -||double straits or two straits||Egypt32|
|26.||Ludim (Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11)||Strife||North Africa, Libya and possibly the Halizones of Egypt33|
|27.||Lehabim (Gen. 10:13)||flame or blade||Libya34|
|28.||Anamim (Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11)||affliction of the waters||A tribe in western Egypt35|
|29.||Casluhim (Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11)||Fortified||North Egypt Delta (called “Lower Egypt”) (“from which came the Philistines”)36|
|30.||Naphtuhim (Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11)||openings||Initially Middle Egypt and later South Egypt (called at that time “Upper Egypt”)37|
|31.||Caphtorim (Gen. 10:14; 1 Chr. 1:12)||a crown||Initially northern Egypt. Later Aehea island of Crete (where the Philistines first moved to)|
|32.||Pathrusim (Gen. 10:14; 1 Chr. 1:12)||region of the south||South Egypt (“Upper Egypt”) (between Cairo and the Aswan in central Egypt)38|
|33.||Phut (Gen. 10:6; 1 Chr. 1:8)||- - -||a bow||Libya and the North African Berber peoples.39|
|34.||Canaan (Gen. 10:6; 1 Chr. 1:8)||- - -||down low or humiliated||Phoenicians (modern Israel west of the Jordan River)|
|35.||Sidon (Gen. 10:15)||Fishery||Phoenicia (Lebanon)|
|36.||Heth (Gen. 10:15)||Warrior||Initially Israel and later the Hittites in modern Turkey40|
|37.||Jebusite (Gen. 10:16; 1 Chr. 1:14)||Jerusalem||Ancient Jerusalem41|
|38.||Amorite (Gen. 10:16)||bitter a rebel||Israel (ancient Canaan) / northern Jordan42|
|39.||Girgashite (Gen. 10:16)||who arrives from pilgrimage||Israel (ancient Canaan) 43|
|40.||Hivite (Gen. 10:17)||Villagers||Southern Lebanon and mountain areas44|
|41.||Arkite (Gen. 10:17; 1Chr. 1:15)||Same||Phoenicians (Irqata, Lebanon)|
|42.||Sinite (Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15)||Same||most likely Northern Lebanon|
|43.||Arvadite (Gen. 10:18; 1 Chr. 1:16)||wandering||Ruad island off north Phoenician coast45|
|44.||Zemarite (Gen. 10:18; 1 Chr. 1:16)||Same||Syrian coast (town of Sumra, at the western base of the Lebanon range)46|
|45.||Hamathite (Gen. 10:18; 1 Chr. 1:16)||Same||Hama, Syrian|
The accuracy of the list of Ham’s descendants. The descendants of Ham included some of the great nations of the ancient world including the Egyptians, the Ethiopians, the Canaanites, the Phoenicians, and the Hittites. The names of these descendants are confirmed in the writings of the Egyptians. The Bible’s accuracy in listing the origins of these nations again demonstrates that it is God’s inspired Word (2 Tim. 3:16).
The sons of Shem. Of the seventy nations that existed in Abraham’s day, 26 came through Noah’s firstborn son Shem: “17 The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, Aram, Uz, Hul, Gether and Meshech. 18 Arpachshad became the father of Shelah and Shelah became the father of Eber. 19 Two sons were born to Eber, the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided, and his brother’s name was Joktan. 20 Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah, 21 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah, 22 Ebal, Abimael, Sheba, 23 Ophir, Havilah and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan.” (1 Chr. 1:17-23; Gen. 10:21-32). The chart below lists each descendant with various ancient nations. These descendants included the Semitic peoples, which later included the Jews and the Arabs.
(46) The Descendants of Shem (Translated as named or renown or fame)
|47.||Elam (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17)||. . .||eternity or hidden||Elamites (southwest Persia / Iran)47|
|48.||Asshur (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17)||. . .||"a step" or "strong"||Northern Iraq (northern Mesopotamia)|
|49.||Lud (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17)||. . .||"strife"||The Lydians in Asia Minor (Turkey) and south-eastern Europe (Albania)48|
|50.||Aram (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17)||. . .||"exalted"||Syria / western Iraq|
|51.||Uz (Gen. 10:23; Job 1:1)||Wooded||Aramaeans (southwestern Syria)49|
|52.||Hul (Gen. 10:23)||Circle||(disputed) Armenia50|
|53.||Gether (Gen. 10:23)||Fear||possibly Afghanistan and part of Mesopotamia51|
|54.||Mash (Gen. 10:23)||drawing out||Central Asia Minor and possibly Pakistan52|
|55.||Arpachshad (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17)||. . .||healer or releaser||Chaldeans53 and also possibly Kirkuk, Iraq|
|56.||Shelah (Gen. 10:24)||mission or sending||Mesopotamia (ancestor of Hebrews)|
|57.||Eber (Gen. 10:24) (Shelah’s descendant)||from the other side||Mesopotamia (also ancestor of Hebrews)54|
|58.||Peleg (Gen. 10:24) (Eber’s descendant)||divided or division||(Also ancestors of Hebrews, descendants lived in Paliga, on the Euphrates, just above the mouth of the Khabur River.) (Tower of Babel believed to happen during his life, the geographic division of land bridges also possible during this time)55|
|59.||Joktan (Gen. 10:25) (Eber’s descendant)||Little||Arabian Peninsula56|
|60.||Almodad (Gen. 10:26; 1 Chr. 1:20) (Joktan’s descendant)||Not measured||Almorad tribe which settled in Felix, Yemen57|
|61.||Sheleph (Gen. 10:26; 1 Chr. 1:20) (Joktan’s descendant)||drawing out||Yemen58|
|62.||Hazarmaveth (Gen. 10:26; 1 Chr. 1:20) (Joktan’s descendant)||court of death||Modern Hadramaut in southwest Saudi Arabia, east of Yemen|
|63.||Hadoram (Gen. 10:27) (Joktan’s descendant)||exalted, noble or honor||Mecca and Medina, Saudi Arabia59|
|64.||Uzal (Gen. 10:27) (Joktan’s descendant)||I shall be flooded||Sana, Yemen60|
|65.||Diklah (Gen. 10:27) (Joktan’s descendant)||palm grove||Dikla tribe of Yemen61|
|66.||Obal (Gen. 10:28) (Joktan’s descendant)||stripped bare||Abil tribe in south Arabia and possibly the Wibal tribe in Arabia62|
|67.||Abimael (Gen. 10:28) (Joktan’s descendant)||my father is God||Southern Arabia and Yemen63|
|68.||Sheba (Gen. 10:28) (Joktan’s descendant)||Oath||blended in with the Sabaeans in south-west Arabia.64|
|69.||Ophir (Gen. 10:29) (Joktan’s descendant)||reducing to ashes||South Arabia65|
|70.||Havilah (Gen. 10:29) (Joktan’s descendant)||Circle||Southern tip of Arabia and next to Djibouti, Africa66|
The accuracy of the list of Shem’s descendants. Archeologists agree that most of the descendants of Shem stayed within the Middle East. Shem’s descendants, however, included many mighty groups including the Arabs, the Hebrews, the Assyrians, and the Babylonians. The accuracy of this is confirmed through Arab historians who trace their descent through Shem as well. In many cases listed above, specific cities or tribes within the Arabian Peninsula can be directly tied to these descendants. These multiple independent sources of historical proof again verify that the Bible is God’s inspired Word (2 Tim. 3:16). God included all of this detail so that you could trust in the rest of His Word. Do you trust in the accuracy of the Bible as God’s Word?
God is sovereign over everything. The Table of Nations also reveals the sovereignty of God. He controls the destiny of every nation. He also appointed for each person a nation to live in: “and He made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined their appointed times and the boundaries of their habitation,” (Acts 17:26). “When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the people according to the number of the sons of Israel.” (Dt. 32:8). Thus, He controls the destiny of every nation.
The righteous line of descendants of Shem leading to Abraham. Although mankind could not escape the evil within their hearts, God remained faithful to His promise to Eve to create a righteous descendant who would restore mankind (Gen. 3:15). To show His faithfulness, God carefully recorded the line of the promised descendants leading to Abraham: “24 Shem, Arpachshad, Shelah, 25 Eber, Peleg, Reu, 26 Serug, Nahor, Terah, 27 Abram, that is Abraham.” (1 Chr. 1:24-27; Gen. 11:10-26). The righteous genealogy parallels the righteous genealogy of Seth in Genesis chapter five following Cain’s rebellion. In both cases, God included the promised genealogy immediately following mankind’s multiple acts of rebellion. By doing this, He showed that His mercy and grace are greater than the ongoing sins of an ungrateful mankind. Abraham was the culmination of the righteous genealogy. He is listed as the tenth descendant of Shem and the twentieth descendant from Adam. In the Bible, the number 10 symbolizes God’s divine order and the Ten Commandments. Through his faith and obedience, Abraham would bring God’s divine order back to the world.
The Righteous Descendants of Shem (Translated as named or renown or fame)
|Arpachshad (Gen. 10:22; 11:10-12; 1 Chr. 1:17)||. . .||healer or releaser||Chaldeans67 and also possibly Kirkuk, Iraq|
|Shelah (Gen. 10:24; 11:12-15)||mission or sending||(Mesopotamia (ancestor of Hebrews)|
|Eber (Gen. 10:24:11:14-17) (Shelah’s descendant)||from the other side||(Mesopotamia, also ancestor of Hebrews)68|
|Peleg (Gen. 10:24; 11:16-19) (Eber’s descendant)||divided or division||(Also ancestors of Hebrews, descendants lived in Paliga, on the Euphrates, just above the mouth of the Khabur River). (Tower of Babel believed to happen during his life, the geographic division of land bridges also possible during this time)69|
|Reu (Gen. 11:18-21; 1 Chr. 1:25) (Peleg’s descendant)||his friend; his shepherd||No nation of his own|
|Serug (Gen. 11:20-23 (Reu’s descendant)||Branch||No nation of his own|
|Nahor (Gen. 11:22-25) (Serug’s descendant)||Snorting||No nation of his own|
|Terah (Gen. 11:25-32 (Nahor’s descendant)||Delay||No nation of his own|
|Abram (Gen. 11:26-32 (Terah’s descendant)||Father||No nation of his own, yet later given the Promised Land of Israel.|
The humble line of the promised descendants. Unlike the other descendants of Noah, the descendants leading to Abraham are not listed among the Table of Nations. Abraham’s descendants did not form nations. By the world’s standards, they would have seemed unsuccessful. Yet, God lifts up the meek and the lowly and uses them for His purposes so that He receives the glory. “Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth.” (Matt. 5:5; Ps. 37:11). It is better to strive for the things of God than seek an empty inheritance in the world. “For what does it profit a man to gain the whole world, and forfeit his soul?” (Mk. 8:36). Have you humbled yourself and sought after the things of God so that His will can be perfected through you?
Jesus humbled Himself at the cross to make your salvation possible. To make your salvation possible, Jesus humbled Himself from His divine power to die as a lowly servant: “but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men. Being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.” (Phil. 2:7-8). “just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.” (Matt. 20:28). “For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was rich, yet for your sake He became poor, so that you through His poverty might become rich.” (2 Cor. 8:9). Jesus also wants you to serve Him by helping others in humility.
God lifts up holy nations and humbles the proud evil ones. God has used His sovereignty over the nations to fulfill His greater plans. As part of His plan, He lifts up the holy nations and bring down the evil ones: “He makes the nations great, then destroys them; He enlarges the nations, then leads them away.” (Job 12:23). “You shall multiply the nation, You shall increase their gladness; . . .” (Is. 9:3(a)). “Behold, the nations are like a drop from a bucket, and are regarded as a speck of dust on the scales; behold, He lifts up the islands like fine dust.” (Is. 40:15). “All the nations are as nothing before Him, they are regarded by Him as less than nothing and meaningless.” (Is. 40:17). “But the LORD is the true God; He is the living God and the everlasting King. At His wrath the earth quakes, and the nations cannot endure His indignation.” (Jer. 10:10). “The LORD is King forever and ever; nations have perished from His land.” (Ps. 10:16). “All the inhabitants of the earth are accounted as nothing, but He does according to His will in the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of earth; and no one can ward off His hand or say to Him, ‘What have You done?’” (Dan. 4:35). The Bible records that God blessed Israel when it remained faithful. He also showed that He humbled His people when they disobeyed. Likewise, when Europe embraced Christ and sent missionaries around the world, God blessed those nations. Yet, when Europe began to turn from God, He removed His blessings and it began it decline in its power and influence. America was also once a vibrant, religious country. As it sent missionaries around the world, it also prospered through His blessings. Now, however, it has followed in Europe’s path of secularization. At the same time, America’s relative power has slowly declined. Unless the western world repents and returns to Judeo-Christian morality, its decline will continue. Are you praying and fasting for your leaders and your nation to return to God?
Trust in God and not the ways of the world. God does not want you to trust in powerful people, powerful nations, or human institutions: “Do not trust in princes, in mortal man, in whom there is no salvation.” (Ps. 146:3). “It is better to take refuge in the LORD than to trust in man.” (Ps. 118:8). “Thus says the LORD, ‘Cursed is the man who trusts in mankind and makes flesh his strength, and whose heart turns away from the LORD.”’ (Jer. 17:5). “Stop regarding man, whose breath of life is in his nostrils; for why should he be esteemed?” (Is. 2:22). Instead, He wants you to trust in Him alone. “Cast your burden upon the LORD and He will sustain you; He will never allow the righteous to be shaken.” (Ps. 55:22). “[C]asting all your anxiety on Him, because He cares for you.” (1 Pet. 5:7). When times are difficult, do you place your trust in strong people or in God?
Abraham’s disobedience in having children through Hagar and Keturah. Through Abraham, God fulfilled His promises and blessed the Jewish, Christian, and Muslim nations. The modern Muslim nations included Abraham’s children of the flesh through Hagar: “28 The sons of Abraham were Isaac and Ishmael. 29 These are their genealogies: the firstborn of Ishmael was Nebaioth, then Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, 30 Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, 31 Jetur, Naphish and Kedemah; these were the sons of Ishmael.” (1 Chr. 1:28-31). God’s first command in the Bible was for Adam and Eve to be fruitful and multiply (Gen. 1:28 (a)) After the Flood, God again commanded mankind (along with the animals) to be fruitful and multiply and fill the Earth (Gen. 8:15-17) Abraham and his descendants inherited this blessing: “And He took him outside and said, ‘Now look toward the heavens, and count the stars, if you are able to count them.’ And He said to him, ‘So shall your descendants be.’ (Gen. 15:5; 12:2; 17:2; 22:17; 24:60). God later repeated this blessing through Moses to His people if they were faithful and obeyed (Dt. 1:11; Lev. 26:3, 9). This fulfillment of His promise is just one of the many accounts in the Bible that verify that God is faithful to keep His promises.
Abraham’s descendants through Ishmael. Even though he was a child of the flesh, God was faithful to bless and provide for Ishmael. God blessed Ishmael with 12 sons, and he later became the father of all the Muslim peoples across the world (Gen. 25:12-15). God previously promised Hagar that He would make a great nation out of Ishmael: “Moreover, the angel of the LORD said to her, ‘I will greatly multiply your descendants so that they will be too many to count.’” (Gen. 16:10). God confirmed this promise by repeating to Abraham: “As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I will bless him, and will make him fruitful and will multiply him exceedingly. He shall become the father of twelve princes, and I will make him a great nation.” (Gen. 17:20). “Rabbinical commentators in the Midrash Genesis Rabbah also say that Ishmael’s mother Hagar was the Pharaoh’s daughter, thereby making Ishmael the grandson of the Pharaoh. This could be why Genesis 17:20 refers to Ishmael as the father of 12 mighty princes.” (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishmael). By granting Ishmael a long life and making him the father of the Muslim peoples of the world shows that God also is faithful to keep His promises to all peoples. You also can trust in His promises. Yet, most people don’t know God’s promises. If you don’t know His promises, how can you trust them?
The fulfillment of God’s warning of the Arab – Israeli conflict. Sadly, the descendants through Ishmael became hostile to all of their relatives through Isaac: “18 They settled from Havilah to Shur which is east of Egypt as one goes toward Assyria; he settled in defiance of all his relatives.” (Gen. 25:18). Ishmael’s second son Kedar (Gen. 25:13) was the father of the “Qedarites”. This was a northern Arab tribe that eventually controlled the area between the Persian Gulf and the Sinai Peninsula. According to Muslim tradition, he is also the ancestor of the “Quraysh” tribe. The founder of Islam, Muhammad, was a member of this tribe. Muhammad’s descendants would later fight endless conflicts against the Jews. This fulfilled a sad prophecy that God previously gave to Hagar in the wilderness: “He will be a wild donkey of a man, his hand will be against everyone, and everyone’s hand will be against him; and he will live to the east of all his brothers.” (Gen. 16:12). Thus, mankind has lived for generations with the consequences of Abraham’s indiscretions. This conflict will continue until Jesus returns.
Abraham’s descendants through Keturah. Just as he did with Hagar, Abraham later again gave into his flesh by taking a concubine and having six additional sons and ten grandsons: “32 The sons of Keturah, Abraham’s concubine, whom she bore, were Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak and Shuah. And the sons of Jokshan were Sheba and Dedan. 33 The sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah.” (1 Chr. 1:32-33). The complete list is also recorded in Genesis (Gen. 25:1-4). Including Ishmael, Abraham had seven children of the flesh and one child of the promise. Abraham was later forced to expel Hagar and Ishmael so that they would not undermine Isaac’s inheritance (Gen. 21:14). For the same reason, he was forced to expel his last six children of the flesh. Yet, even though expelled from the Promised Land, the seven children of the flesh received God’s blessings by being associated with Abraham: “And I will bless those who bless you, and the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.” (Gen. 12:3). This blessing is symbolized by the gifts that Abraham gave to each of Keturah’s sons.
The consequences of Abraham’s action. Because Abraham was not meant to have children with others besides Sarah, the Jews paid for his sins of the flesh. Keturah’s fourth son “Midian” later became the father of the Midianite nation (Gen. 25:2). The Midianites lived in the northwestern Arabian Peninsula (Gal. 4:25). Initially, they were friendly to the Jews. Moses lived in Midian in Saudi Arabia (the most likely location for Mount Horeb) and married a Midianite named Zipporah (Ex. 2:21). Later, the relationship between the Jews and the Midianites changed for the worse. Midianite women later seduced a large number of Jewish men to worship their idol Baal-phegor through temple prostitution. The Jews then killed an entire clan of Midianites (Nu. 31:1-54). During the time of the judges when Israel turned away from God, He allowed the Midianites to pillage the Promised Land for the Jews’ food resources for seven years (Jdgs. 6:1-6). After the Jews cried out for help, God then used Gideon’s army of only 300 soldiers to kill 120,000 enemy Midianites (Jdgs. 7:16-22; 8:10). None of this suffering would have occurred if Abraham had not sinned by taking a concubine.
Don’t be unequally yoked. God commanded Abraham to send the descendants of Hagar and Keturah outside of the Promised Land because He did not want the descendants of the promise to be unequally yoked with them: “Furthermore, you shall not intermarry with them; you shall not give your daughters to their sons, nor shall you take their daughters for your sons.” (Dt. 7:3; Ex. 34:16; Josh. 23:12). God also wants you to be pure and holy for His use. He wants us to be holy because He is holy (1 Pet. 1:16; Lev. 11:44-5; 19:2; 20:7). Part of being pure and holy includes being separate from marriages to non-believers: “You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey together.” (Dt. 22:10). “Do not be bound together with unbelievers; for what partnership have righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship has light with darkness?” (2 Cor. 6:14). “If we say that we have fellowship with Him and yet walk in the darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth;” (1 Jo. 1:6). Have you kept yourself from being unequally yoked?
Make no provision for your flesh. These are real historical accounts. Yet, they are also filled with symbolism. Abraham’s expulsions of his children through Hagar and Keturah symbolized God’s mandate that he make no provision for the things of his flesh. Paul also commanded believers to make no provision for the flesh: “But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh in regard to its lusts.” (Ro. 13:14). “But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh.” (Gal. 5:16). “Now those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified the flesh with its passions and desires.” (Gal. 5:24). “[K]nowing this, that our old self was crucified with Him, in order that our body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be slaves to sin;” (Ro. 6:6). Part of living by the Spirit requires that you renew your mind every day to live according to the Spirit: “And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what the will of God is, that which is good and acceptable and perfect.” (Ro. 12:2). Like Abraham, are you purging the unnecessary things of the flesh from your life?
The flesh is at war with the Spirit. Just as the descendants of Hagar and Keturah would later wage war against Isaac’s descendants, your flesh is also at war with the Spirit. “And you brethren, like Isaac, are children of promise. But as at that time he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, so it is now also.” (Gal. 4:28-29). Satan seeks to put your flesh at war with God’s Spirit: “[T]he mind set on the flesh is hostile toward God . . .” (Rom 8:7). “and those who are in the flesh cannot please God.” (Rom. 8:8). “For the flesh sets its desire against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; for these are in opposition to one another, so that you may not do the things that you please.” (Gal. 5:17). If you give in to your flesh, the devil will ultimately enslave you: “Do you not know that when you present yourselves to someone as slaves for obedience, you are slaves of the one whom you obey, either of sin resulting in death, or of obedience resulting in righteousness?” (Ro. 6:16; Gal. 4:7-9). If you then fail to ask for Christ to deliver you from your bondage, He will turn you over to your addictions until you repent: “Therefore, God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them. For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, . . .” (Ro. 1:24-33; Ps. 81:12). Thus, you must pick who you will serve: “No one can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to one and despise the other.” (Matt. 6:24). Thus, you cannot lead a dual life. Which master are you serving?
Abraham’s seven deadly sins, and his divine election based upon grace. Many are tempted to elevate the great leaders of the Old Testament on a pedestal. Yet, like you, every one of them was a sinner. Abraham committed at least seven deadly sins in his life. Any one of these sins could have resulted in his death and disqualified him from becoming the father of the faith. First, he was an idol worshiper before God called him out of Ur (Josh. 24:2). Second, he disobeyed God’s calling to leave Lot behind in Ur (Gen. 12:1-2, 4). Third, he failed to trust God in the Promised Land when he experienced a drought and fled for Egypt (Gen. 12:10). Fourth, he again failed to trust God by lying to Pharaoh about his wife (Gen. 12:11-16). Fifth, he failed to trust God’s promise of a son when he slept with Hagar (Gen. 16:1-4). Sixth, he failed to trust God when he lied about his wife to Abimelech (Gen. 20:1-2). Finally, he sinned by taking on a concubine and having children through her (Gen. 25:1-6). Paul explains in Romans chapter 9 that the patriarchs were divinely elected by God. Yet, the Bible makes clear that they were not divinely elected because of their merit. Each was a sinner. Instead, God elected the patriarchs based upon grace because He knew before time the sinful choices that each would make. But He knew that they would all at some point believe in Him with faith.
Jesus also loved and called you while you were still a sinner. Just like Abraham, Jesus also loved you and called you while you were still a sinner: “For while we were still helpless, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. . . . But God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.” (Ro. 5:6, 8). Like Abraham, you are called upon to accept and confirm God’s calling in your life: “Therefore, brethren, be all the more diligent to make certain about His calling and choosing you; for as long as you practice these things, you will never stumble;” (2 Pet. 1:10). “knowing, brethren beloved by God, His choice of you;” (1 Thess. 1:4). Have you responded in faith to His calling in your life? Or, are you clinging to your old life?
The descendants through Isaac. Even though Abraham was unfaithful to God, God was faithful to keep His promises to Abraham to provide a line of chosen descendants through his sons Isaac and Jacob (Israel): “34 Abraham became the father of Isaac. The sons of Isaac were Esau and Israel. (1 Chr. 1:34). This was the fulfillment of God’s promises. But it took faith and patience for God’s blessing to come to fulfillment.
God’s faithfulness in Sarah’s supernatural birth. Despite Abraham’s sins, God remained faithful to His Word to give him an appointed heir through Sarah (Gen. 21:1-2). God also showed His sovereignty by foretelling exactly the time of Isaac’s birth a year earlier (Gen. 17:21). “‘Is anything too difficult for the LORD? At the appointed time I will return to you, at this time next year, and Sarah will have a son.’” (Gen. 18:14).
God may not act until you believe in faith. God can do all things. Yet, He waited until Sarah and Abraham believed before He transformed her 90-year-old womb. Sarah and Abraham lived in the Promised Land 25 years before they finally believed in His Word: “By faith even Sarah herself received ability to conceive, even beyond the proper time of life, since she considered Him faithful who had promised.” (Heb. 11:11). “Without becoming weak in faith he contemplated his own body, now as good as dead since he was about a hundred years old, and the deadness of Sarah’s womb.” (Ro. 4:19). With faith in God, all things are possible: “And looking at them Jesus said to them, ‘With people this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.’” (Matt. 19:26; Mk. 10:27; Lk. 18:27). “For nothing will be impossible with God.” (Lk. 1:37). ‘“Behold, I am the LORD, the God of all flesh; is anything too difficult for Me?’” (Jer. 32:27). “I know that You can do all things, and that no purpose of Yours can be thwarted.” (Job 42:2). “I can do all things through Him who strengthens me.” (Phil 4:13). Yet, without faith, you should not expect God to act unless it is part of His plan for some other reason: “And without faith it is impossible to please Him, for he who comes to God must believe that He is and that He is a rewarder of those who seek Him.” (Heb. 11:6). If your faith is lacking, God may also wait before intervening in your life.
You also can be born again. There are parallels between Isaac and any believer in Christ. Just as Abraham and Sarah’s faith restored their dead line, your faith can also make you a restored child of the promise: “And you brethren, like Isaac, are children of promise.” (Gal. 4:28). Like Abraham and Sarah, your spiritual rebirth cannot happen without faith and the transformation of the Holy Spirit: “Jesus answered, ‘Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’” (John 3:5-7). “Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come.” (2 Cor. 5:17). “Therefore we have been buried with Him through baptism into death, so that as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.” (Ro. 6:4). “and put on the new self, which in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth.” (Eph. 4:24). If others examined you, would they say that you are living as a new creation in Christ?
You also can trust in His promises to you. God’s faithfulness in keeping His promises to Abraham shows that you can also trust His promises for you as well. “Faithful is He who calls you, and He also will bring it to pass” (1 Thess. 5:24). “Know therefore that the LORD your God, He is God, the faithful God, who keeps His covenant and His lovingkindness to a thousandth generation with those who love Him and keep His commandments;” (Dt. 7:9). “God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.” (1 Cor. 1:9). He is faithful even when you are not: “If we are faithless, He remains faithful, for He cannot deny Himself.” (2 Tim. 2:13). Have you given thanks that He is faithful even when your faith fails Him?
God’s faithfulness in creating a nation out of Esau. The first chapter of 1 Chronicles concludes with descendants of Abraham who rose to great power while the Jews were in Egyptian captivity. While the people of Israel spent 400 years in captivity, God blessed Esau’s descendants in Edom with eight consecutive kings to rule Edom. Yet, the seventh king’s name “Baal-hanan” reflected their embrace of the pagan god Baal. And they had 11 mighty chiefs, a number which is associated with chaos in the Bible: “35 The sons of Esau were Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam and Korah. 36 The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zephi, Gatam, Kenaz, Timna and Amalek. 37 The sons of Reuel were Nahath, Zerah, Shammah and Mizzah. 38 The sons of Seir were Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah, Dishon, Ezer and Dishan. 39 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Homam; and Lotan’s sister was Timna. 40 The sons of Shobal were Alian, Manahath, Ebal, Shephi and Onam. And the sons of Zibeon were Aiah and Anah. 41 The son of Anah was Dishon. And the sons of Dishon were Hamran, Eshban, Ithran and Cheran. 42 The sons of Ezer were Bilhan, Zaavan and Jaakan. The sons of Dishan were Uz and Aran. 43 Now these are the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king of the sons of Israel reigned.  Bela was the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dinhabah. 44 When Bela died,  Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah became king in his place. 45 When Jobab died,  Husham of the land of the Temanites became king in his place. 46 When Husham died,  Hadad the son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in the field of Moab, became king in his place; and the name of his city was Avith. 47 When Hadad died,  Samlah of Masrekah became king in his place. 48 When Samlah died,  Shaul of Rehoboth by the River became king in his place. 49 When Shaul died,  Baal-hanan the son of Achbor became king in his place. 50 When Baal-hanan died,  Hadad became king in his place; and the name of his city was Pai, and his wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezahab. 51 Then Hadad died. Now the chiefs of Edom were: chief Timna,  chief Aliah,  chief Jetheth, 52  chief Oholibamah,  chief Elah,  chief Pinon, 53  chief Kenaz,  chief Teman,  chief Mibzar, 54  chief Magdiel,  chief Iram. These were the chiefs of Edom.” (1 Chr. 1:1:35-53; Gen. 36:31-43). While he lived in Canaan, Esau compromised with God’s standards and married two Canaanites and a daughter of his half uncle Ishmael. Through his wives, he had five sons named Eliphaz, Reuel, Jeush, Jalam and Korah (1 Chr. 1:35; Gen. 36:1-5). Yet, Esau despised the things of God and chose worldly promises (Gen. 25:29-34; Heb. 12:16). Although God meant for Esau to succeed, he and his nation Edom failed because they walked away from God. Their failure was relevant to the Jews who questioned why some of the Jewish tribes became lost and never returned from captivity. Like Esau and Edom, some of the tribes walked away from God’s covenant and refused to return.
The world offers instant gratification while God offers eternal gratification. 1 Chronicles reminded the Jews that Edom reached its pinnacle of power: “43 . . . before any king of the sons of Israel reigned.” (1 Chr. 1:43). This would have likely caused some Jews at the time to question God. The people of Edom also used their power over the Jews when they were a new nation. For example, Herod the Great was an Edomite who terrorized the Jews. The number eight symbolizes new beginnings. God gave Esau’s descendants a new beginning with their own kingdom. But Esau’s descendants used this God-given opportunity for evil. As time went on, their rulers drifted further and further from God until they denounced Him for the pagan gods of the world. None of the names reflect anything about God. The seventh king represented the culmination of evil. His name “Baal-hanan” (Gen. 36:38) reflected allegiance to the Canaanite god Baal. The name translates as “Baal is gracious.” What started off as compromise and cooled passions for the things of God eventually led to the rejection of God and the open embrace of the devil. God does not want you to trust in powerful people, powerful nations, or human institutions. God later revealed to Joshua that He gave Esau’s descendants the nation of Edom to govern while he sent His people into 400 years of slavery: ‘“To Isaac I gave Jacob and Esau, and to Esau I gave Mount Seir to possess it; but Jacob and his sons went down to Egypt.”’ (Josh. 24:4). It might have been difficult for the Jews to see this pagan nation with a long history of stable kings. Yet, God was teaching His people the importance of patience in waiting for Him to fulfill His promises. God told the Jews that, in the end, the more powerful people of Edom would eventually serve them: “The LORD said to her [Rebekah], ‘Two nations are in your womb; and two peoples will be separated from your body; and one people shall be stronger than the other; and the older shall serve the younger.’” (Gen. 25:23). Indeed, when the Holy Spirit came to Edom, their mighty rulers trembled in fear: “Then the chiefs of Edom were dismayed; the leaders of Moab, trembling grips them; all the inhabitants of Canaan have melted away.” (Ex. 15:15). God would ultimately fulfill His promise. Saul subjected Edom (1 Sam. 14:47). David would later establish bases with military troops there (2 Sam. 8:14). While the Jews were later blessed with the opportunity to come back to their country of Israel, Edom ceased to exist. Although evil can seem attractive at a time, it never lasts.
Esau chose the promises of the world over the promises of God. As a child of the flesh, Esau had little regard for the blessings of God available to him as the firstborn son of Isaac. Thus, he gave them up for a bowl of lentil stew (Gen. 25:29-34). In the book of Hebrews, God revealed that Esau sold his birthright because he was immoral and did not believe with faith in God: “that there be no immoral or godless person like Esau, who sold his own birthright for a single meal.” (Heb. 12:16). He later regretted what he lost: “For you know that even afterwards, when he desired to inherit the blessing, he was rejected, for he found no place for repentance, though he sought for it with tears.” (Heb. 12:17). Yet, his mere “regret” was not enough because he was unwilling to change his heart. Esau later committed the sin of polygamy by marrying two Hittite women. This brought his parents great grief (Gen. 26:34-35; 27:46). Both Isaac and Esau married at age 40 (Gen. 25:20). Forty symbolizes trials and testing in the Bible. Isaac passed the test by waiting for the woman that God “appointed” for him (Gen. 24:14). In contrast, Esau followed the path of Lamech, the first polygamist and a murderer (Gen. 4:19). His first two sons reflected a time when he had some relationship with God. Eliphaz means “my God [El] is pure gold”. His second son Reuel means “friend of God [El]”. His last three sons and his grandchildren had names with no connection to God. Korah, his last son, meant “ice, hail, or frost”. His relationship with God had become cold through his compromises. His name also foreshadowed the evil Levite named Korah who lead a rebellion in the wilderness against Moses (Num. 16:1-35). After Isaac blessed Jacob instead of Esau, Esau took his three wives and his five children and left the Promised Land. They settled in the hill country of Seir in the southern part of modern Jordan (Gen. 36:6-8). Abraham also sent his seven sons of the flesh out of the Promised Land. He first sent out Hagar and her son Ishmael (Gen. 21:12-21). He later sent out Keturah and her six sons (Gen. 25:1-6). Yet, unlike Hagar, Keturah and her children, Esau left voluntarily. The language of Esau’s departure tracks in reverse the language used for Abraham’s departure from Ur (Gen. 12:5). The language in this account also mirrors the language used prior to Lot’s departure from the Promised Land (Gen. 13:6). The warnings from Esau’s mistakes apply to every believer. When you make compromises with the world, you also run the risk of causing your passions towards God to cool.
Despite Esau’s unfaithfulness, God was faithful to make a great nation out of Esau. God’s creation of the nation of Edom is important because it shows that He was faithful to keep His promise to Rebekah that two nations would come through her: “The LORD said to her, ‘Two nations are in your womb; and two peoples will be separated from your body;’” (Gen. 25:23(a); 1 Chr. 1:36-42; Gen. 36:9-14). Esau had five sons and ten grandsons who later became mighty kings and tribal chiefs. Some contend that by grouping the descendants in a certain way, Esau’s descendants appear analogous to the 12 descendants of Ishmael (who founded the Arab nation) and the 12 descendants of Jacob (who founded Israel). In the Bible, 12 is the number associated with God-ordained government. Just as there are 12 tribes, there were later 12 apostles. Thus, the nations of Israel, Edom, and the Arab nation were all ordained by God. He established these nations to show that He keeps His promises. He separately showed that He was faithful to His promise to Abraham that “many nations” would come from him (Gen. 17:4-5). The Bible is filled with historical accounts demonstrating that God keeps His Word.
Don’t mock your spiritual birthright. Because Esau cared little for the things of God, he liked better what he saw in the world than in the Promised Land. Like Esau, many treat their birth rights in Jesus with no greater importance than a bowl of stew. “But a natural man does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised.” (1 Cor. 2:14). The “gift” Jesus offers is free (Rom. 5:15; 2 Cor. 9:15). Yet, many find no value in His free gift. “For the word of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.” (1 Cor. 1:18). God wants you to place your value in what He offers over what the world offers: “But whatever things were gain to me, those things I have counted as loss for the sake of Christ. More than that, I count all things to be loss in view of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them but rubbish so that I may gain Christ,” (Phil. 3:7-8). When others mock what the Bible says or what God offers, do you stay steadfast in your faith? Are you using your spiritual gifts each day for God’s glory?
Your compromises will not cause God to stop loving you. Many assume the first thing God does when He sees sin is to punish the sinner. Yet, this is incorrect. “Then the LORD passed by in front of him and proclaimed, ‘The LORD, the LORD God, compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in lovingkindness and truth;”’ (Ex. 34:6). “The LORD is compassionate and gracious, slow to anger and abounding in lovingkindness.” (Ps. 103:8). “We count those blessed who endured. You have heard of the endurance of Job and have seen the outcome of the Lord’s dealings, that the Lord is full of compassion and is merciful.” (Ja. 5:11). With Edom’s descendants, God first tried to win them over with love and blessings. He blessed them with rulers to rule the land for hundreds of years. Yet, the Edomites misused these blessings as a license to sin. If you sin, God will never stop loving you. Punishment will also be a last resort. He would rather woo you back with blessings and love than with punishments. Yet, like the Edomites, have you forced God to discipline you for misusing His blessings to sin?
God’s judgment upon Esau. God promised that He would make a “great nation” out of the descendants of Ishmael (Gen. 17:20, cf. 21:13, 18). By contrast, He only promised to make a nation out of Esau. Every good and perfect thing is from God (Ja. 1:17). Yet, like many people today, Esau believed that the only good things in his life came from the respect he received for his own skills. Because he had no regard for the things of God, he was not thankful for his spiritual birthright. With sorrow, God later “hated” the evil in his heart: ‘“I have loved you,’ says the LORD. But you say, ‘How have You loved us?’ ‘Was not Esau Jacob’s brother?’ declares the LORD. ‘Yet I have loved Jacob; but I have hated Esau, and I have made his mountains a desolation and appointed his inheritance for the jackals of the wilderness.” (Mal. 1:2-3; Rom. 9:13). With sadness, He later judged them for their wars against Israel. “Flee away, turn back, dwell in the depths, O inhabitants of Dedan, for I will bring the disaster of Esau upon him at the time I punish him.” (Jer. 49:8; Is. 34:5). “Then your mighty men will be dismayed, O Teman, so that everyone may be cut off from the mountain of Esau by slaughter.” (Ob. 1:9). “therefore thus says the Lord GOD, ‘I will also stretch out My hand against Edom and cut off man and beast from it. And I will lay it waste; from Teman even to Dedan they will fall by the sword.”’ (Ezek. 25:13). Like Edom, no nation should become prideful and believe that it can live in open rebellion against God. Eventually, all nations will be judged. It is the role of believers to be “salt and light” in a lost nation (Matt. 5:13-16).
God lifts up holy nations and humbles the proud evil ones. Edom’s destruction demonstrates that God uses His sovereignty over the nations to fulfill His greater plans. As part of His plan, He lifts up the holy nations and brings down the evil ones (Job 12:23; Is. 40:15; Jer. 10:10; Ps. 10:16; Dan. 4:35). The missing tribes of Israel suffered the same destruction. Thus, no nation should take God’s blessings for granted.
Just as the nation of Edom disappeared, the western world can disappear as well. Many find no value in studying the genealogies of a nation that no longer exists. Without the Bible, Edom would be entirely forgotten. Yet, their forgotten status is exactly the message that believers should focus on. Just as God can record people in the book of life, He can blot out the wicked. This includes wicked nations: “You have rebuked the nations, You have destroyed the wicked; You have blotted out their name forever and ever.” (Ps. 9:5). “The LORD said to Moses, ‘Whoever has sinned against Me, I will blot him out of My book.”’ (Ex. 32:33; Dt. 9:14; 29:20; Ps. 69:28; Rev. 13:8). Do you worry more about how others will see you than where others spend their eternity?
God’s blessings have been based upon His grace. Both the Table of Nations and the promised line through Abraham’s descendants reveal that God does not follow human customs and traditions. He shows this in listing the nations in reverse of the natural birth order of Noah’s children. Japheth, the father of the European nations, was the oldest son of Noah. Usually, the oldest child received the largest blessing or inheritance in Middle Eastern culture. This is just one of many examples in the Bible where God reveals that what mankind considers to be important is not the same as what God considers to be important. Other examples include: (1) Ishmael, who lost his firstborn blessing to Isaac (Gen. 17); (2) Esau, who gave up his birthright to Jacob (Gen. 25:33-34); (3) Reuben, Simon, and Levi, all of whom lost their firstborn or inherited firstborn blessing due to sin to Judah; and (4) Manasseh, who lost his firstborn blessing to Ephraim when Israel switched their birth order blessing (Gen. 48:14). God also switched the birth order of the tribes during the census counts in the wilderness. While the world can offer you an inheritance based upon your status or wealth, God offers you a permanent inheritance in Him that is based upon faith alone: “to obtain an inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven for you,” (1 Pet. 1:4).
Image credit https://th.bing.com/th/id/OIP.NGw6rLs188DGOccvuR9vbgHaHa?pid=ImgDet&rs=1↩︎
William F. Albright, quote by David Guzik, http://www.studylight.org/commentaries/guz/view.cgi?bk=0&ch=10↩︎
Kenneth Mathews, “The New American Commentary: An Exegetical and Theological Exposition of Holy Scripture” Genesis 1-11:26, Vol. 1A, (B&H Publishing Group Nashville Tenn. 1996) p. 441; see also Jer. 51:27.↩︎
According to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, Riphath was the ancestor of the “Paphlagonians.” Their prior country on the Black Sea ran the river “Rhebas”. (Ant., I, vi, 1.)↩︎
Togarmah’s descendants were later skilled in warfare and sold horses and mules to the army in Tyre, Lebanon. (Ez. 27:14.) They also would supply soldiers to the army of Gog (Gyges of Lydia). (Ez. 38:6.)↩︎
According to Josephus, Magag was the ancestor of the Scythians. (Ant., I, vi, 1). In the book of Revelation, Gog and Magog waged war against God’s people in Israel. (Rev. 20:8.)↩︎
According to the apocrypha Book of Jubilees (10:35-36), Madai had married one of Shem’s daughters and preferred to live among Shem's descendants. He gave up his land beyond the Black Sea and received from Shem’s descendants land in Northern Iran. Many Kurds also tied their descent to him. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madai; Mahir A. Aziz, 2011, The Kurds of Iraq: Ethnonationalism and National Identity in Iraqi Kurdistan, p. 47; Mathews, p. 440.↩︎
Mathews p. 441-2; see also 1 Kgs. 10:22; Ez. 27:12, 35; 2 Chr. 20:36-37.↩︎
Josephus called his descendants the “Iberians.” This mostly corresponded to modern Georgia. The peoples of Georgia also claim him as their ancestor. www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/smiths-bible-dictionary/tubal.html↩︎
Josephus called them the Thracians (Thrakes). (Ant, I, vi, 1) “Tuch was the first to suggest the Tursenioi, a race of Pelasgian pirates, who left many traces of their ancient power in the islands and coasts of the Aegean, and who were doubtless identical with the Etruscans of Italy. This brilliant suggestion has since been confirmed by the discovery of the name Turusa among the seafaring peoples who invaded Egypt in the reign of Merenptah (W.M. Muller, AE, 356).” Horace J. Wolf (http://www.biblestudytools.com/encyclopedias/isbe/tiras.html)↩︎
Mathews, p. 424, quoting Targum Pseudo-Jonathan.↩︎
Genesis 9:27; Targum Pseudo-Yonatan.↩︎
First Fruits of Zion, at 38; b.Megillah 9b.↩︎
Mathews, p. 424, at 424-425.↩︎
“Cush” is also identified with the kingdom of Meroë, ancient Aethiopia and/or the Arabian peninsula. Josephus called his descendants the Ethiopians. Hebrew scholar David M. Goldenberg believes that the Hebrew name is derived from Kash, the Egyptian name of Lower Nubia. Moses's wife Zipporah was from Cush. (Nu. 12:1.) Jeremiah 13:23 implies that they were darker skinned individuals. “Can the Ethiopian [Cusite] change his skin or the leopard his spots?” (NASB) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cush_(Bible) The name is also connected to Kassites who lived in northeastern Babylonia. (Mathews p. 445.) They may have started in Babylonia where one of the lands of the four rivers of Eden were named after them. They then most likely migrated to Arabia and then Ethiopia and finally into Sudan.↩︎
Josephus also believed that his descendants settled in Ethiopia. In other verses, Seba is mentioned in connection with Ethiopia or Egypt. (Ps. 72:10; Is. 43:3; Is. 45:14.). The island of Meroe near Ethiopia was once called “Suba.” There is also a tribe in Sudan called the Suab. http://creationwiki.org/Seba;Mathews p. 447.↩︎
This land is also mentioned in Genesis 2:11. It was rich in gold and bdellium and onyx stone. A district of Saudi Arabia bears this name. This may include a sandy tract which skirts Babylonia along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates to the mountains of Edom. http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/eastons-bible-dictionary/havilah.html↩︎
According to Josephus, Sabtah founded the said, “Sabathens” In his day, the Greeks called them the “Astaborans.” In ancient times, the Blue Nile between Ethiopia and Sudan was called the Astasobas. Likewise, in Somalia, the two largest Somali clan groups are the Somaal and the “Sab”. http://creationwiki.org/Sabtah; Mathews p. 447.↩︎
According to The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, the country Raamah is in the Arabian Peninsula.↩︎
Josephus believed that the Sabacten tribe in Yemen were his descendants. (Josephus, Antiquities 1:6:2)↩︎
Lud is also the fourth son of Shem. (Gen. 10:22.) The plural for Lud is Ludim. It is believed that they settled along the north coast of Africa. It is also believed that their name gave rise to the modern name Libya. http://creationwiki.org/Ludim; http://www.biblestudytools.com/encyclopedias/isbe/lud-ludim.html↩︎
Josephus believed that their descendants settled in Libya. http://creationwiki.org/Lehabim. Other place their descendants in Western Egypt. They appear to be the Reby or Lebu of Egyptian writings. http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/smiths-bible-dictionary/lehabim.html↩︎
Josephus believes that "Phut also was the founder of Libya.” (Josephus, Antiquities 1:6:2). Others place Phut between Egypt and Canaan. http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/eastons-bible-dictionary/phut.html↩︎
They became the Hittite. Initially, they lived in Israel. (E.g., Gen. 15:19-21; Nu. 13:29; Dt. 7:1-5; Josh. 3:10.). Egyptian records confirm battles between them and chariot Egyptian warriors sent by Rameses II in the Battle of Kadesh. Their later migration to Turkey is recorded in the Hittite capital Hattusa, near Boğazkale in Turkey. http://creationwiki.org/Heth↩︎
Jebus is the ancient name for Jerusalem. (Jdgs. 19:10; 1 Ch. 4:5.)↩︎
They existed in Hebron (Gen. 14:13); Shechem (Gen. 48:22) the west side of the Dead Sea (Gen. 14:7); and in other locations. They also referred collectively to all the Canaanites under God’s judgment. (Gen. 15:16.).↩︎
They were related to the Hivites and lived in central and western Israel. http://www.biblestudytools.com/dictionaries/eastons-bible-dictionary/girgashite.html↩︎
They lived “in Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal-hermon unto the entrance of Hamath,” (Jdgs. 3:3) and "under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh,” (Josh. 11:3.)↩︎
The Hebrews have a similar translation to their name as “ones from beyond”.↩︎
They also crossed the Bab-el-Mandeb strait to the African coast. They inhabited the city of Aualis on the Red Sea coast of Africa, next to the modern state of Djibouti. This city is today called Zeila.↩︎
The Hebrews have a similar translation to their name as “ones from beyond”.↩︎