Introduction and Seven Themes to the Story of Esther

Overview of the story of Esther. How do you know that God is there for you when you can’t feel His presence and you are under attack? The book of Esther answers this question. Esther was a young Jewish woman in exile who won a beauty contest that allowed her to marry the Persian king Xerxes, aka Ahasuerus (486-465 B.C.). When the villain Haman plotted to destroy the Jews, Esther risked her life and her position to serve God and save her people. The Jewish author of Esther is unknown. Yet, it is one of the most well-known stories of the Old Testament. The story takes place in between 516 B.C., when the Jews completed the Temple during the reign of King Darius I (Ezra 6:13-15), and 458 B.C., when God appointed Ezra to lead a new wave of Jews to the Promised Land during the reign of Persian King Artaxerxes Longimanus I (circa 464 – 423 B.C.) (Ezra 7:1-5). Ezra’s story is exciting, fast paced, and easy to read story. It is an inspiring example about what ordinary people can do when they serve in faith. It is also the last of the historical books of the Old Testament before the beginning of the wisdom books.

Searching for the hidden meanings in the story Esther. Esther is also famous for being one of only two books of the Bible where God’s name does not appear, the other being called the Song of Solomon. Esther is also never quoted in the New Testament. For these and other reasons, Martin Luther, the founder of Protestantism, opposed having it canonized. He succeeded in challenging the Roman Catholic Church’s decision to canonize the book of Maccabees, but he thankfully failed in his efforts to remove Esther. God warned in advance that He would hide His face if His people forsook Him (Dt. 31:16-18). In Esther, believers are called upon to discover God’s invisible hand guiding the events. “It is the glory of God to conceal a matter, but the glory of kings is to search out a matter.” (Prov. 25:2). This story was originally referred to as the “scroll of Esther”. Yet, the Jews typically called it just “the scroll” or the Megillah. During a Jewish feast called Purim (which is explained in this book), a Jewish person is to go to the synagogue for the reading of the Megillah, a shortened name for the scroll of Esther (Babylonian Talmud, Megillah 1a). In Hebrew, the word scroll “megillah” contains the root word gagah, which means to “uncover” or “remove.” The root Hebrew letters “g-l-h” also mean to reveal. In this story, Esther’s Jewish birth name of “Hadasseh” (“Myrtle”) was also changed to “Esther.” For the Persians, this would have appeared similar to their name for star “stara” or even the Babylonian goddess Ishtar. Yet, in Hebrew, the similar word Hester means “hidden.” Both Esther and Hester contain the same, the root letters “s-t-r”, which means “to hide” or “conceal.” Thus, to the Jews, Esther’s name meant to hide or conceal. Together, what the Jews call the “Megillah Esther” could mean “the Revealing of the Hidden.” Esther concealed her Jewish identity so that God could use her as His instrument to save His people. This story also conceals God’s important hidden messages for His people to survive during the end times.

The seven themes of the story of Esther. The events of Esther are historical. Yet, as God’s inspired Word (2 Tim. 3:16), the text also contains lessons for believers in any time period:

1) God is sovereign and faithful to keep His promises. Haman cast a lot to randomly pick the day of the Jews’ planned destruction (Esther 3:7). But God showed how He was in control by selecting this same day to deliver the Jews (Esther 9:24). In Esther, God showed that He was in control through seemingly impossible coincidences. God also tells the story around eight feasts, with the evil feasts in the beginning of the story replaced by righteous feasts at the end. The story is told “chiastically”, using a Hebrew literary device where each feast or event mirrors the other inversely. God promised that He will never forget His Covenant with His people (Dt. 4:31). Through Moses, He even promised to protect the Jews when they were in their future captivity (Lev. 26:44-45). The prophet Isaiah later foretold of King Cyrus II of Persia’s future victory over Babylon 150 years before he was even born (Is. 44:28-45:5). Because God is faithful, He later raised up Esther and Mordecai to protect the Jews who returned to the Promised Land and those who stayed behind. Daniel explained: “It is He [God] who changes the times and the epochs; He removes kings and establishes kings; He gives wisdom to wise men and knowledge to men of understanding.” (Dan. 2:21; Job 12:23; Is. 40:15). Moses told the Jews to “Be strong and courageous, . . . , for the Lord your God is the One who is going with you. He will not desert you or abandon you.” (Dt. 31:6). God will also never leave or forsake you (Heb. 13:5). Even when believers are a persecuted minority, He will never abandoned His people.

2) The anti-christ seeks to destroy God’s people. The antagonist Haman was an Agagite (Esther 3:1). The Agagites were descendants of the Amalekites. God’s elect line to Jesus ran through Jacob’s grandson Perez (Gen. 38:26-29; Ruth 4:18-22; Matt. 1:3-6). In contrast, the line of the flesh ran through Esau’s grandson Amalek (Gen. 36:12). While Jacob’s elect line symbolized the promise of the Spirit, Esau’s line symbolized the evil line of the flesh. “For the desire of the flesh is against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; for these are in opposition to one another, . . .” (Gal. 5:17). The Bible foreshadowed the defeat of the Amalekites and the flesh when Abraham “conquered all the country of the Amalekites”, long before the Amalekites even existed (Gen. 14:7). According to Messianic Rabbi Zev Porat, there are exactly 12,110 Hebrew letters between that point in Genesis and the time when Amalek is first introduced as the offspring of Esau’s son and a concubine (Gen. 36:12). Not without coincidence, there are exactly 12,110 Hebrew letters in the book of Esther. In the book of Exodus, God promised to wipe out the Amalekites (Ex. 17:14). God then used Balaam to prophesize about the future destruction of the Amalekites (Nu. 24:20). Just before the Jews invaded the Promised Land, Moses reminded the Jews of their obligation to blot out the Amalekites (Dt. 25:19). But the Jews let the Amalekites survive. Through the prophet Samuel, God later ordered King Saul to wipe out all the Amalekites (1 Sam. 15:2-3). But Saul also allowed the Amalekites to survive (1 Sam. 15:9). God then judged Saul and removed his kingdom from him (1 Sam. 15:26). If Saul had complied with God’s Word, Haman would never have been alive to threaten the Jews. Haman was one of many anti-christs who have existed throughout time. Many of these anti-christs have come to try to kill off the Jews and preach anti-Semitism. These include, but are not limited to, Pharaoh, Haman, and Hitler. For the Jews living in the Persian empire, they were a persecuted minority. Many of the Jews adopted the worldly ways of their captors, and God would have felt distant to some of the faithful who remained. These events will sadly repeat themselves during the end times. Believers are warned that the spirit of the anti-christ will rise in an even more dangerous man who will unite the world in opposition to God’s people. The anti-christ will then again try to wipe out God’s people. Yet, the Bible tells us that he will fail again. Just as the story of Esther ends in a happy banquet after Haman was killed, believers will celebrate in a joyful banquet before Jesus in heaven after Satan is finally vanquished.

3) God frequently uses believers as the instruments of His deliverance. The story of Esther is also about God’s deliverance. Haman announced the future day of the Jews’ destruction one day before Passover (Esther 3:7-15). Passover celebrated when God delivered the Jews from a threatened extinction in Egypt (Ex. 12:1-51). The Jews needed to have faith that God would deliver them again. God used visible miracles in Egypt, including 10 plagues and the parting of the Red Sea to deliver His people (Dt. 4:34). Yet, He more frequently uses people like Esther with courage in their faith to deliver His people. Esther was willing to sacrifice her position and her life for others. God blessed those who stood for the Jews (Esther and Mordecai) and cursed those who tried to destroy the Jews, including Haman (Gen. 12:3(a)). Today, those who have tried and failed to exterminate the Jews have found that God still keeps His promises.

4) God places believers in places of influence and then calls upon them to serve. In one of the book’s most famous verses, Mordecai told Esther that she had been raised up to be queen for the purpose of delivering the Jews: “And who knows whether you have not attained royalty for such a time as this?” (Esther 4:14(b)). The stories Esther, Daniel, and Joseph all demonstrate that God sometimes places believers in positions of influence to accomplish His purposes. Although God is sovereign, He gives people free will. Esther, Daniel, and Joseph all showed their faith by using their positions to serve God. Believers must also be obedient to their calling.

5) God uses imperfect people to accomplish His plans. Esther and Mordecai were faithful and courageous. But they were still imperfect people. In 538 B.C., God influenced King Cyrus I to issue a decree that gave the Jewish captives in Babylon the right to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple (Ezra 1:1-4; 5:13-17). While some courageous Jews immigrated back to the Promised Land in 538 B.C., only a small percentage of the Jews were willing to leave behind their new lives in Persia. Esther and Mordecai were among the majority who stayed behind. God also wanted His people to remain separated from the nations around them (Lev. 11:44-45; 19:2; 20:7). To keep His people holy and from turning their hearts away from Him, God prohibited the Jews from marrying any pagan person (Dt. 7:3-4). Mordecai’s decision to have Esther conceal her identity so that she could compete to marry King Xerxes was directly contrary to God’s law (Esther 2:10). Likewise, there is no evidence that Esther observed any of the dietary laws in King Xerxes’ court as Daniel did in Babylon. She also lacked forgiveness when Haman pleaded for mercy. But God still used these imperfect people to accomplish His plans.

6) God’s deliverance was based on grace. When the Jews rebelled, God removed His protection, and the Jews experienced oppression (Neh. 9:26). When the Jews then cried out, God delivered them (Jdgs. 2:16; Neh. 9:27). But each time God delivered the Jews, they returned to their sins (Neh. 9:28-30; Jdgs. 2:17-22; Jer. 11:10; 2 Chr. 7:22; 1 Kgs. 14:9; Jer. 9:3; Ro. 1:28). God’s mercy and grace, however, was greater than the Jews’ ongoing rebellions against Him (Neh. 9:31). In the book of Esther, the Jews again did nothing to earn their deliverance.

7) The foreshadow of Jesus in the Feast of Purim. For the Jews, the story of Esther is also important because it explains the origin of the Feast of Purim (Esther 9:24-28). “Purim” is the plural of the Hebrew word “pur”, which means lot. The day is called “lots” or Purim to remind the Jews that God is in control of history, and He is faithful to protect His people. For most Christians, this is an unimportant Jewish holiday. Yet, the Feasts of the Old Testament all reveal the “shadows” of Jesus (Col. 2:17). The “holy convocations” or “miqras” can also be translated as “rehearsals.” (Lev. 23:2). With the Feast of Purim, the Jews unknowingly rehearsed for the arrival of their deliverer, the Messiah. The Feast of Purim is a time for Christians to prepare for His return. Thus, believers should study Purim as a chance to honor Jesus for their deliverance.

Esther 1: Seven Lessons from Xerxes’ Reign on the Future Evils of the End Times

Introduction: In Esther 1, the Bible reveals King Xerxes’ evil at the height of his power. There is no mention of God, His people, His laws, or His plan for mankind. Thus, many see this chapter as merely setting the stage for Esther’s future candidacy to become the Queen of Persia. But the first chapter does more than merely lay the foundation for Esther’s arrival. As the beginning of the end of the Old Testament historical books, this chapter also describes the beginning of the end of time. There will soon come a time when one ruler controls the world. During this one-world government, God’s name will not be mentioned, His laws will not be followed and God’s people will be hiding out of fear for their persecution. From this account, God reveals seven types of evils that will dominate in the end times, including: (1) pride, (2) covetousness, (3) carnality, (4) wrathfulness, (5) worldliness, (6) selfishness, and (7) suffering.

First, Xerxes ruled most of the then known world. Out of pride, he held a banquet for all of his servants to honor him. His pride would lead to other sins and later weaken the Persian empire. During the end times, a one-world government will exist, and pride will be glorified as a virtue. Second, out of his covetousness, Xerxes displayed his wealth for 180 days for all to marvel. During the end times, covetousness will also be glorified. Third, Xerxes would frequently get drunk at his banquets, and at one point he summed his queen to display her like a piece of property. During the end times, mankind will also celebrate its carnal desires. Fourth, when his queen refused to be paraded in front of his guests like a piece of meat, Xerxes became filled with rage. He was known to be a despot with an irrational temper. During the end times, mankind will also be filled with hatred. Fifth, Xerxes sought worldly advice for dealing with his queen. During the end times, mankind will also embrace worldliness over God and His Word. Sixth, Xerxes’ advisors counseled him that the queen’s actions might encourage women everywhere to assert the right to be treated with dignity. They only cared about themselves. During the end times, mankind will become self-centered and callous towards others. Finally, in his rage, Xerxes banished his queen and ordered all wives to obey their husbands, no matter the circumstance. During the end times, unchecked evil will also cause suffering and misery.

1. Pride: During the End Times, the Pride of Mankind Will be Glorified. Esther 1:1-3.

  • Xerxes’ power. After the conquests of Cyrus II, Cambyses II, and Darius I, Ahasuerus (aka Xerxes) inherited a Persian empire that covered most of the known world: “Now it happened in the days of Ahasuerus, the Ahasuerus who reigned from India to Cush over 127 provinces, in those days as King Ahasuerus sat on his royal throne which was at the citadel in Susa, in the third year of his reign he held a banquet for all his officials and attendants, the army officers of Persia and Media, the nobles and the officials of his provinces, in his presence.” (Esther 1:1-3). With the exception of Greece, Xerxes controlled the known world. In 483 B.C., the third year of his reign, he held a great banquet at Susa, his capital. The purpose of his banquet was to display his power to the nobles and officials from the 127 provinces that he ruled. He was prideful and wanted the nobles and leaders from throughout his kingdom to pay homage to him. This was also believed to be an opportunity for him to raise troops and commitments to fight a war against Greece (480-479 B.C.). Jesus later declared that this is how mankind leads without God: “But Jesus called them to Himself and said, ‘You know that the rulers of the Gentiles domineer over them, and those in high position exercise authority over them.”’ (Matt. 20:25). Xerxes’ pride would, however, lead to the many sins recorded in chapter. His pride would further lead to both his military defeat and the decline of Persia.

  • Xerxes’ pride in inheriting an empire that others had built. Persia reached its peak power under Xerxes’ father, Darius I (522-486 B.C.). Although he was not the oldest son, Xerxes succeeded Darius I to the throne (486-465 B.C.). During his first three years, his reign started off well. He put down a rebellion in Egypt that began at the end of King Darius I’s reign. Xerxes then called for a banquet to honor himself and his power. The kingdom that he inherited extended from northwestern Indian to Sudan and Turkey. He also built a massive temple to himself with the following inscription: “I am Xerxes, the great king. The only king of countries (which speak) all kinds of languages, the king of this big and far-reaching Earth . . .Thus speaks King Xerxes: These are the countries – in addition to Persia – over which I am king under the ‘shadow’ of Aburamazda, over which I hold sway, which are bringing tribute to me – whatever is commanded them to me, that they do and abide by my law: [list omitted].” (Mervin Breneman, The New American Commentary, Vol. 10, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther (B&H Publishing Group 1993) p. 279).

  • Xerxes’ pride led to other sins and the future demise of the Persian empire. Through his pride, Xerxes committed one of the sins that God “hates”: “ . . . pride and arrogance and the evil way and the perverted mouth, I hate.” (Prov. 8:13). While Xerxes’ father Darius I “the Great” was known as a wise and compassionate ruler, Xerxes had “only a love of opulent display which progressively sapped his moral fiber.” (Breneman p. 279; G. Ricciotti, The History of Israel, vol. II (Milwaukee: Bruce, 1955), p. 16). Others record that Xerxes “had the weakness, tyrannical character, and a love of luxury to be expected in a prince reared at court.” (Breneman p. 279; C.E. Van Sickle, A Political and Cultural History of the Ancient World (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1947), p. 151). The events of chapter one take place at the height of his debauchery. God used his drunken and arrogant behavior to create an opening for Esther to become queen. God also used his pride to allow for the future discontent that would enable Mordecai to uncover a plot to kill Xerxes. Because Xerxes exalted himself, God humbled him in battle. “Whoever exalts himself shall be humbled; and whoever humbles himself shall be exalted.” (Matt. 23:12; Job 22:29; Jam. 4:6). In between 480 and 479 B.C., during a gap in the Esther text between this feast during the third year of his reign (Esther 1:3) and the seventh year of his reign (Esther 4:6), he led a military campaign against the Greeks at Eurymedon on the coast of Pamphylia. His pride caused him to initiate this war against the Greeks because they would not submit to him. Yet, Xerxes lacked the proper naval forces and supply lines to fight this war. Thus, his war ended in failure. Out of pride, he then launched another war against the Greeks. In 470 B.C., the Greeks defeated the Persians at Salamis in Cyprus. This caused the Persians to lose control over their Greek colonies in Asia Minor. One of these defeats also likely fueled the conspiracy to overthrow Xerxes that Mordecai uncovered. If Xerxes had read the book of Daniel, he would have known not to provoke the Greeks: “And now I will tell you the truth. Behold, three more kings are going to arise in Persia. Then a fourth will gain far more riches than all of them; as soon as he becomes strong through his riches, he will stir up the entire empire against the realm of Greece.” (Dan. 11:2). In 465 B.C., another conspiracy would result in his death, causing his son Artaxerxes I to take the throne. The events from Ezra 7 through the end of Nehemiah take place during his reign. The Greek victories over Xerxes later inspired Alexander the Great to defeat all of Persia. “Pride goes before destruction, and a haughty spirit before stumbling.” (Prov. 16:18). “A man’s pride will bring him low, . . .” (Prov. 29:23). Xerxes’ pride deceived him into thinking that he was able to defeat any nation: ‘“ . . . The arrogance of your heart has deceived you,’ . . . declares the LORD.” (Jer. 49:16). Like Xerxes, when you are prideful, your heart will also deceive you.

  • During the end times, mankind will glorify pride in itself. During the end times, Satan will raise up an anti-christ and seek to be worshipped (Rev. 13:8-12). The day of judgment will come after Satan again “exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, displaying himself as being God.” (2 Thess. 2:1-4). Satan will also remove the stigma of pride. People will also celebrate their pride in things that God expressly condemns. Have you examined yourself to see if you are prideful about your looks, wealth, or accomplishments?

2. Covetousness: During the End Times, Covetousness Will Also be Glorified. Esther 1:4-6.

  • Xerxes displays his splendor for 180 days. To accommodate his many far-flung subjects, Xerxes held a rotating banquet for 180 days for people to travel and marvel at his wealth: “4 At that time he displayed the riches of his royal glory and the splendor of his great majesty for many days, 180 days. When these days were finished, the king held a banquet lasting seven days for all the people who were present at the citadel in Susa, from the greatest to the least, in the courtyard of the garden of the king’s palace. There were curtains of fine white and violet linen held by cords of fine purple linen on silver rings and marble columns, and couches of gold and silver on a mosaic floor of porphyry, marble, mother-of-pearl, and mineral stones.” (Esther 1:4-6). Xerxes loved to gaze at his wealth. Greek historians recorded that they also discovered his gold couch at a camp that Xerxes fled from following a military defeat. His opulent furniture, linens, and special stone floors at his palace in Susa were meant to remind his visitors that he was the richest ruler in the world. His lust for wealth and power, however, could not be satisfied.

  • In the end times, people will also be blinded by their vanity and materialism. Through his love for his treasures, Xerxes also violated God’s Tenth Commandment (Ex. 20:17; Dt. 5:21). Like Xerxes, people during the end times will become vain regarding their material possessions: “For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, revilers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy,” (2 Tim. 3:2). “For they all seek after their own interests, not those of Christ Jesus.” (Phil. 2:21). Do you find joy in displaying your wealth or expensive things for others to see?

  • Guard yourself against greed and covetousness, which can defile you before God. Solomon was the wisest man alive (1 Kgs. 4:30). Yet, he coveted first wealth and then women. His coveting led him to take 700 wives and 300 concubines (1 Kgs. 11:3). His lusts and his pagan wives then turned his heart away from God (1 Kgs. 11:4). He then began to serve other gods and did evil in God’s eyes (1 Kgs. 11:5-6). Jesus warned believers to stay vigilant to guard their heats against greed and any form of covetousness: “Then He said to them, ‘Beware, and be on your guard against every form of greed; for not even when one has an abundance does his life consist of his possessions.”’ (Lk. 12:15). Coveting, like the other Ten Commandments, is a sin of the heart that defiles you: “For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed the evil thoughts, fornications, thefts, murders, adulteries, deeds of coveting and wickedness, as well as deceit, sensuality, envy, slander, pride and foolishness. All these evil things proceed from within and defile the man.” (Mk. 7:21-23). “A man with an evil eye hastens after wealth and does not know that want will come upon him.” (Prov. 28:22). Thus, if you covet and refuse to repent, you are defiling yourself before God.

  • Through God’s testing, Solomon ultimately lamented his covetousness. Solomon also acquired incredible wealth and a stronger nation of Israel than ever existed again: “I enlarged my works: I built houses for myself, I planted vineyards for myself;” (Ecc. 2:4). Yet, before his death, he lamented that his actions were wasted vanity. “I have seen all the works which have been done under the sun, and behold, all is vanity and striving after wind. What is crooked cannot be straightened and what is lacking cannot be counted.” (Ecc. 1:14-15). Are you chasing after vain accomplishments, wealth, or power?

3. Carnality: During the End Times, Mankind Will Celebrate Carnal Desires. Esther 1:7-11.

  • Xerxes becomes drunk and demands that his queen be displayed. At one of his parties, Xerxes became drunk and demanded that his beautiful queen be paraded before his guests like his treasures of gold and silver: “Drinks were served in golden vessels of various kinds, and the royal wine was plentiful in proportion to the king’s bounty. But the drinking was done according to the royal law; there was no compulsion, for so the king had given orders to each official of his household, that he was to do as each person pleased. Queen Vashti also held a banquet for the women in the palace which belonged to King Ahasuerus. 10 On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was cheerful with wine, he ordered Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, Abagtha, Zethar, and Carkas, the seven eunuchs who served in the presence of King Ahasuerus, 11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king with her royal turban in order to display her beauty to the people and the officials, for she was beautiful.” (Esther 1:7-11). Although the queen held a separate banquet, Persians did not require the separation of men and woman. Her separate banquet instead demonstrated that she had independent rights as the queen. The Greek historian Herodotus recorded that Xerxes’ queen was named Amestris. Some argue that Vashti was another name for the Amestris. Or, Vashti (translated as “sweetheart”) may have been her descriptive name. (J.S. Wright, “The Historicity of the Book of Esther,” in New Perspectives on the Old Testament, (Waco: Word Books, 1970), pgs. 40-41).

  • The king likely demanded for the queen to be displayed nude. The reason for the queen’s refusal to comply with the king’s demands are not stated (Esther 1:12). Knowing his temper, she must have had a compelling reason to refuse him and risk being punished. The Jewish Targums or interpretive guides declare that a dispute arose as to which of the subject nations had the most beautiful women. Xerxes tried to settle the matter by commanding Vashti to appear either naked or with only her crown. (B. Grossfeld, The Two Targums of Esther, The Aramaic Bible, vol. 18 (Collegeville: Liturgical, 1991), pgs. 34-35). This would be consistent with the drunken, tyrannical king who saw his queen as his property. “The king suffered from his obsession with manipulative power while Vashti and Esther exhibited the power of righteousness.” (Breneman, P. 307-8).

  • During the end times, people will also glorify their carnal desires. Just as it was in Xerxes’ banquets, people living in the end times will also celebrate drunkenness, drugs, and sexual perversion: “But realize this, that in the last days difficult times will come. For people will be . . . lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God,” (2 Tim. 3:1-4). “Know this first of all, that in the last days mockers will come with their mocking, following after their own lusts,” (2 Pet. 3:3). “For we also once were . . . enslaved to various lusts and pleasures, . . .” (Titus 3:3). Moreover, sexual practices that God condemns will be celebrated. Although not politically popular to hear, God warns: “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil; . . .” (Is. 5:20).

4. Wrathfulness: During the End Times, Mankind Will be Filled With Wrath. Esther 1:12.

  • Xerxes becomes filled with anger at his queen’s refusal to obey him. After Queen Vashti refused Xerxes’ drunken demands, he burned with wrathful anger: “12 But Queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s order delivered by the eunuchs. So the king became very angry, and his wrath burned within him.” (Esther 1:12). Xerxes’ anger may have been in part driven by the fact that the banquet was designed to inspire confidence in his subjects and for them to contribute troops for his planned Greek war. Yet, his drunken rage was not a one-time event. It was something that he displayed against anyone who questioned his orders. As one commentator observers “Xerxes was a cruel, sensual, and capricious despot . . . The [Bible’s] character of Xerxes (Ahasuerus) is consistent with what is known about him through secular historians such as Herodotus, Aeschylus, and Juvenal (e.g., his sumptuous drinking parties, extravagant gifts, irrational temper).” (Frank Gaebelein, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, Vol. 4, 1, 2 Kings, 1, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job (Zondervan Publishing House 1988) p. 785, 89).

  • During the end times, people will be unforgiving and violent toward each other. During the end times, God’s teachings of mercy and forgiveness will be ignored. “1 But realize this, that in the last days difficult times will come. For people will be . . . unloving, irreconcilable, malicious gossips, without self-control, brutal, haters of good, treacherous, reckless, conceited, . . .,” (2 Tim. 3:1-4). Like Xerxes, people will become “without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful;” (Ro. 1:31). When God’s love and mercy are removed, the end times will be filled with acts of violence, wrath, vengeance, hatred, and betrayal, the same way Xerxes treated others.

5. Worldliness: During the End Times, Mankind Will Embrace Worldliness. Esther 1:13-15.

  • Xerxes’ worldly counsel. Xerxes mostly likely knew that his drunken demands could not be justified. Thus, he looked to his royal advisors to justify his rage under Persian law: “13 Then the king said to the wise men who understood the times—for it was the custom of the king to speak this way before all who knew Persian law and justice 14 and were close to him, namely, Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven officials of Persia and Media who had access to the king’s presence and sat in the first place in the kingdom— 15 ‘According to law, what is to be done with Queen Vashti, since she did not obey the command of King Ahasuerus delivered by the eunuchs?’” (Esther 1:13-15). Ezra also recorded the existence of the seven royal advisors for the next Persian king (Ezra 7:14). Although the Persians had extensive laws, nothing existed to address the king’s drunken demands against his queen.

  • During the end times, people will embrace ungodly counsel. During the end times, people will reject God’s Word for worldly values. Although worldly values are celebrated today, God calls the open embrace of worldly ways of living as demonic: “But the Spirit explicitly says that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to deceitful spirits and doctrines of demons,” (1 Tim. 4:1). “But false prophets also arose among the people, just as there will also be false teachers among you, who will secretly introduce destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them, bringing swift destruction upon themselves.” (2 Pet. 2:1). Are you voting for leaders who will uphold God’s laws and His standards of morality?

  • Solomon learned through his mistakes that wisdom comes from fearing God. Through his many mistakes, Solomon learned that God’s wisdom required fearing Him: “The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction.” (Prov. 1:7; 2:5). “The conclusion, when all has been heard, is: fear God and keep His commandments, because this applies to every person.” (Ecc. 12:13; Ps. 111:10; 1 Sam. 12:24). Solomon defined the fear of the Lord as “hating” evil (Prov. 8:13). Solomon was the wisest and richest man to ever live (1 Kgs. 3:12, 4:30; 10:23). “I said to myself, ‘Behold, I have magnified and increased wisdom more than all who were over Jerusalem before me; and my mind has observed a wealth of wisdom and knowledge.”’ (Ecc. 1:16). Yet, without the fear of God, Solomon’s great wisdom, knowledge, and wealth could not prevent him from descending into covetousness, licentiousness, rebellion, and idolatry. His life should be a warning to every believer. Unless you cling to Jesus, knowledge, wisdom, and wealth cannot save you from drifting in your walk from Him.

6. Selfishness: During the End Times, Mankind Will Become Selfish. Esther 1:16-18.

  • Xerxes’ advisors worry about their power over their wives. Xerxes’ advisors gave him the cover he sought and also sought to protect their own interests: “16 And in the presence of the king and the other officials, Memucan said, ‘Queen Vashti has wronged not only the king but also all the officials and all the peoples who are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus. 17 For the queen’s conduct will become known to all the women so as to make their own husbands despicable in their sight, when they say, ‘King Ahasuerus commanded that Queen Vashti be brought in to his presence, but she did not come.’ 18 And this day the wives of the officials of Persia and Media who have heard about the queen’s conduct will talk about it to all the king’s officials, and there will be plenty of contempt and anger.” (Esther 1:16-18). Unlike God’s prophets, Xerxes’ advisor Memucan sought to gain favor with the King by justifying Xerxes’ irrational outburst of anger. He also sought to protect the influence of other Persian men over their wives.

  • In the end times, people will also be self-centered and uncaring. Like Xerxes and his advisors, people during the end times will become selfish and cruel: “For men will be lovers of self, . .. ” (2 Tim. 3:2). “And because lawlessness is increased, most people’s love will become cold.” (Matt. 24:12). “For they all seek after their own interests, not those of Christ Jesus.” (Phil. 2:21). Are you lacking love and compassion for the lost?

7. Suffering: During the End Times, Unchecked Evil Will Cause Suffering. Esther 1:19-22.

  • The Queen’s punishment and the King’s decree. Xerxes used the advice of his advisors to banish his queen and order wives everywhere to obey their husbands: “19 If it pleases the king, let a royal edict be issued by him and let it be written in the laws of Persia and Media so that it cannot be repealed, that Vashti may not come into the presence of King Ahasuerus, and let the king give her royal position to another who is more worthy than she. 20 When the king’s edict which he will make is heard throughout his kingdom, great as it is, then all women will give honor to their husbands, great and small.’ 21 Now this word pleased the king and the officials, and the king did as Memucan proposed. 22 So he sent letters to all the king’s provinces, to each province according to its script and to every people according to their language, that every man was to be the ruler in his own house and the one who speaks in the language of his own people.” (Esther 1:19-22). Xerxes felt it was more important to justify his drunken rage than his wife’s dignity. Thus, he banished her and issued his decree: “When King Ahasuerus heeded this advice from Memucan, he showed himself to be unreasonable and wrong. He should have honored the dignity of his Queen. Yet, history’s profile of Ahasuerus shows him to be an unreasonable and foolish man in many cases. On one occasion, Ahasuerus executed the builders of a bridge because an ocean storm destroyed it; then he commanded that the water and waves be whipped and chained to punish the sea.” (David Guzik on Esther 1).

  • Xerxes’ decree was the opposite of a Biblical decree. Xerxes’ decree was in no way similar to Biblical rules of spousal submission. In the New Testament, wives are only urged to submit to their husbands when their husbands are leading as Jesus submitted for His Church: “and subject yourselves to one another in the fear of Christ. Wives, subject yourselves to your own husbands, as to the Lord.” (Eph. 5:21-22; Col. 3:18). Husbands are to lead like Jesus, who put the needs others before His own “Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave Himself up for her,” (Eph. 5:25).

  • During the end times, people will also live in strife against each other. The book of Revelation reveals that the end times will be filled with strife and misery. “For we also once were foolish ourselves, disobedient, deceived, . . . spending our life in malice and envy, hateful, hating one another.” (Titus 3:3). This will include massive wars (Matt. 24:7; Rev. 6:4); famine (Matt. 24:7; Rev. 6:5-6), massive earthquakes (Lk. 21:11), epidemics of horrible diseases (Lk. 21:11), and ungodly values (2 Tim. 3:1-4).

  • God used Xerxes’ evil heart to protect His people. Near the beginning of his reign when Xerxes put down a rebellion in Egypt, God’s enemies also sent letters from Samara to make false accusations that the Jews were also enemies of the Persian empire: “Now in the reign of Ahasuerus, in the beginning of his reign, they wrote an accusation against the inhabitants of Judah and Jerusalem.” (Ezra 4:6). Thus, Xerxes would have had no immediate interest in replacing his Persian queen for a Jewish one. Yet, even though God is not mentioned in this account, He silently used the actions of this evil king to allow for a concealed Jew to become the future queen where she could deliver the Jews from Haman’s future plans to exterminate them: “Whether it was the passion or the policy of the king that was served by this edict, God’s providence served its own purpose by it, which was to make way for Esther to the crown.” (Matthew Henry on Esther 1).

God’s Faithfulness in Delivering the Jews from Babylonian Captivity

605 BC

Nebuchadnezzar II (Babylonian)

562 BC

Evil Merodach (Babylonian)

560 BC

Nabonidus (Babylonian) (was Aramean)

Resided in northern Arabia

539 Belshazzar, viceroy in Babylon until 522 ???

539 Cyrus II conquers Babylon

Cyrus II (Persian)

530

Cambyses II (Persian)

Of Ezra 4.7,11,23

522 BC

Darius I the Great (Mede)

(one of Artaxerxes’ generals 488

486 BC

Xerxes I (Persian)aka “Xerxes the Great”

464 BC

Artaxerxes I Capital is Susa

3rd son of Xerxes (Persian)

424 BC 3 months Xerxes II

423

Darius II

404 BC