“Then God said ‘let the waters team with swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the Earth in the open expanse of the Heavens’ (1:20). And God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarmed after their kind, in every winged bird after its kind; and God saw that it was good (1:21). And God blessed them, saying ‘be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the Earth’ (1:22). And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day” (1:23).
“Then God said, ‘let the Earth bring forth living creatures after their kind: cattle and creeping things and beasts of the Earth after their kind’; and it was so (1:24). And God made the beasts of the Earth after their kind and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good (1:25). Then God said, ‘let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the Earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the Earth’ (1:26). And God created man in His own image in the image of God, He created male and female, He created them (1:27). And God blessed them; and God said to them, ‘be fruitful and multiply and fill the Earth and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves on the Earth’ (1:28). Then God said ‘behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of all the Earth and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you (1:29); and to every beast of the Earth and to every bird of the sky and to everything that moves on the Earth which has life I have given every green plant for food’ and it was so (1:30). And God saw all that He had made and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day” (1:31).
During His fifth and sixth days of creation, God created the first animals and humans. Because He created millions of animals during this time period, His eleven-verse summary was not meant to provide an encyclopedia of every animal that He created. Likewise, because the Bible had to be written for people of all ages, He omitted the animals that went extinct before humans, like the dinosaurs and the hominids. References to these creatures would have had no meaning to people living before the 19th Century. Because mankind is the focus of His account, He only lists the animals that were useful to mankind. With a few exceptions, these correspond with the animals later deemed to be “Kosher” under the God’s dietary laws in the Torah. Although not all animals groups are mentioned, there are several lines of proof of God’s special creation during these days.
First, thousands of years ago, Moses revealed that God created the fish and other kinds of sea creatures before creating the animals. Until the 19th Century, believers had only their faith to defend this claim. Yet, beginning in the early 1840s, geologists discovered that nearly every type of fish or ocean-related phyla of organisms appeared before the animals of the Earth in a geological blink of time. This event is now called the “Cambrian explosion”. For more than 150 years, evolutionists have promised that the alleged transitional species leading to the Cambrian explosion would be discovered. Yet, they never have. Moses’ accurate description of this event is confirmation of the Bible’s accuracy. Second, the appearance of amphibians after fish, the next alleged step in evolution, also provides evidence of God’s intelligent design. At a genetic level, there is no evidence that amphibians evolved into fish. Third, the appearance of reptiles after amphibians, the next alleged step in evolution, also provides evidence of God’s intelligent design. The component parts of the first reptilian egg were “irreducible complex” at the time of its first appearance. Moreover, no alleged transitional species between amphibians and reptiles have ever been found. Fourth, the Bible claims that winged animals appeared after the first sea life and before the first land mammals. Again, scientists have confirmed the Bible on this point to be accurate. Fifth, the appearance of the first warm-blooded mammals, the next alleged step in evolution, also provides evidence of God’s intelligent design. The internal systems of the first warm-blooded mammal were also irreducible complex at its first appearance. Moreover, with only a few disputed exceptions, evolutionists do not have any transitional fossils for the nearly 4,000 types of mammals alive today. Sixth, the next alleged evolutionary steps in the appearance of mankind is the primate. Yet, after more than 150 years of searching, scientists have never found anything that primates allegedly evolved from. There is likewise no evidence that withstands the test of scrutiny that they or the hominids evolved into humans. Finally, thousands of years ago, Moses claimed that mankind was God’s final creation. For centuries, believers had nothing but their faith to defend this claim. With the exception of new strands of viruses or bacteria, scientists have verified that no new species of animals have appeared since mankind. This again shows the Bible to be God’s inspired Word. The Bible also proclaims that God made mankind in His image. The unique attributes of mankind distinguish it from anything that preceded it. Among other things, humans alone have the ability concern themselves with questions of good and evil and morality. The unique aspects of humanity contain the finger prints of God’s creation. These multiple lines of evidence confirm both God’s special creation during His fifth and sixth days and the Bible’s authenticity.
The following chart is a chronology of the first appearance of every major organism or animal group in the alleged evolutionary sequence from bacteria to mankind. The prior study for God’s third and fourth creation days established that the first bacteria and the first “protist” (a eukaryotic celled organism) miraculously appeared with no predecessor organisms. Moreover, the hostile conditions of the early Earth would not allow for organic materials to form on their own. Modern theories of evolution further offer no support for the natural origin of life. God’s fifth and sixth creation days also bear His finger prints through multiple progressive acts of special creation until the final appearance of mankind.
God’s Progressive Creation of Bacteria to Mankind (Creation Days Three Through Six)
|GOD’S CREATION DAY/ TYPE OF ORGANISM||ERAS||PERIODS||EST. TIME SPAN, YEARS AGO|
(Third and Fourth Days)
Fully formed anaerobic bacteria appear
At least 30 life-exterminating asteroid impacts on Earth
“cyanobacteria”; Blue green algae - prokaryotic bacteria;
Protists (eukaryotic celled);
Photosynthetic land plants
4.54 billion years ago
4.41 billion years ago
4.28 billion years ago.1
From 3.8 until 3.5 billion years ago.2
Between 2.7 billion to 2.1 billion ago.3
3 billion to 1.7 billion years old.4
(Fifth and Sixth Days)
(“Cambrian Explosion”; Invertebrates; jawless fish;
jawed fish; boney lobe-finned fish; (Gen. 1:20-21.)
370 million years ago.7
Avian dinosaurs / birds (Gen 1:22-23)
Mammals (Gen. 1:24-25.);
320 to 310 million years ago8
240 million years ago
200 to 125 million years ago.9
65 million years ago.10
Humans (Gen. 1:26-28; 2:7.),
The cultural “Big Bang.”
|Recent||Pleistocene Epoch||200,000 to 50,000.11 50,000 years ago.12|
Fish and Other Sea Life During His Fifth Creation Day. Gen. 1:20-23.
Thousands of years ago, Moses made a bold claim. He alleged that God made the fish after the first plant life and before the animals or humans. In the Genesis account, he specifically names fish, which are Kosher under God’s dietary laws. By referencing “swarms” or “sheres” (Gen. 1:20), he also makes a unique reference to the non-Koshier organisms of the sea, like mollusks and crustaceans. Furthermore, through the use of two different Hebrew words for “create”, Moses further reveals that God created some sea life from nothing (“bara”) and others using existing resources (“asa”).13 Thus, for some organisms, God created them from nothing. For others, He most likely created new organisms by guiding change within the embryo of the organism.
Evolutionists often claim that the creationists can only raise negative argumentation to prove their points. Yet, Moses’ amazing description of all the fish and ocean-related phyla appearing at once and before the land animals has now been confirmed.
The Bible’s accuracy and God’s intelligent design is evidenced by at least seven things. This include: (1) the sudden appearance of nearly every known phyla of organisms (something which is consistent with the Bible and contrary to any accepted theory of evolution); (2) the absence of any intermediate organisms, (despite more than 150 years of searching); (3) the appearance of different kinds of eyes and complex organs (all without any predecessor organisms); (4) the inability for large predecessor organisms to have existed based upon the low pre-Cambrian oxygen levels in the atmosphere and a global ice age that preceded the Cambrian explosion; (5) the inability of more modern theories of evolution, like punctuated equilibrium, to explain this explosion of organisms; (6) the inability of the theories of generic mutation to explain this explosion of organisms; and (7) the impossibility of every possible predecessor organisms staying hidden in the fossil record after more than 150 years of searching.
Approximately 540 million years ago during the Paleozoic era, every animal phyla ever to exist, between 70 and 75 in total, suddenly appeared. (A phylum is as groupings of animals based upon their general body plan. A phylum is the highest level in a system for classifying organisms, which a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist named Carl Linnaeus set up in 173514). This further occurred in a geological “blink of an eye,” spanning between 5 to 10 million years. Since that time, no new animal phyla have arisen. By some estimates, the number has in fact decreased.
Within this short time, fossils abound of fully formed complex invertebrates. This also includes “chordates”, to which vertebrates (animals with backbones) such as humans belong.
The animals included “brachiopods.” These creatures lived in shells that looked like those used by clams or cockles.
The animals further included “arthropods.” These are animals with jointed, external skeletons. Evolutionists call them the ancestors of spiders and crustaceans and certain insects. Their bodies also showed that complex predator-prey relationships existed when no predator-prey relationships previously existed. Their hard exteriors offered both a defense against enemies and a framework for supporting larger body sizes.
The animals also included “trilobites.” To protect themselves in the oceans from predators that also instantly appeared during this time period, they had flattened, segmented, plated bodies. They also appeared with widely varying sizes. Some were only a millimeter in length. Others were more than 2 feet in length.
Other animals included the “Anomalocaris.” This animal looked like a giant shrimp. Its mouth had hooks to kill its prey.
These animals all had complex eyes or organs when they first appeared. For example, the “Opabinia” had five eyes. Along with a flexible clawed arm attached to its head, it used these five eyes to catch its prey.
The diverse animals include, but not limited to: clams, worms, archaic sponges, sea urchins, sea lilies, snails, jellyfish, brachiopods, sea cucumbers, swimming crustaceans, and other complex invertebrates. Every single one appeared fully formed and without any trace of prior transitional species.
The amazement of this explosion of life is not limited to the sudden appearance of all 70 to 75 animal phyla and a variety of fully formed invertebrates. Many of the major insect groups known today also appeared in the fossil record, some as we see them today.
The Cambrian fossil record also includes a high number of “lagerstätten.” These are specially occurring geological events that preserve soft tissue. These lagerstätten have allowed paleontologists to examine the internal anatomy of animals, where, in other sediments, only shells, spines, and claws remain. The most significant Cambrian lagerstätten are found in the Maotianshan shale beds of Chengjiang in Yunnan, China; the Sirius Passet in Greenland; the Burgess Shale in British Columbia, Canada; and in the Orsten fossil beds of Sweden. From these lagerstätten, paleontologists have verified that many of these organisms, like the snails, crustaceans, and insects, had fully formed eyes and digestive organs.15
Discoveries of marine crustacean fossils from the Maotiansham Shale of China further reveal evidence of the simultaneous appearance of open water (pelagic) animals, fully equipped with specialized swimming organs, eyes, and defensive shells, at the same time as bottom dwelling (benthic) animals appeared. Under an evolutionary model, open water organisms should have evolved long after the appearance of bottom dwelling organisms.16
This amazing explosion of invertebrates throughout the entire world has been popularly termed by geologists the “Cambrian explosion.” Others call it life’s “Big Bang.”
The amazement of the Cambrian explosion does not end with these discoveries. Other discoveries show that two entire groups, previously assumed to represent the next steps in our evolutionary pathway, also appeared at the same time and without a trace of intermediates.
The first discovery includes fossilized fish in the middle of the Cambrian rocks.17 Examples include the soft spinal cord cordobite fish called the “Pikaia gracilens.” It was a wormlike creature that swam in the Cambrian seas. Fossils found in the Burgess Shale of British Columbia show traces of a notochord (a rod-like primitive backbone).18
Until the late 1990s, paleontologists upheld this organism with its complex dorsal notochord as the transitional species linking invertebrates to hard spinal cord vertebrates. Paleontologists, however, have radiocarbon dates of this organism showing its existence approximately 535 million years ago. This places the Pikaia right in the beginning to middle of the Cambrian explosion when other invertebrates first appeared.19 Moreover, this organism had fully developed eyes, and it is believed that it burrowed its tail into the sand and fed off of microscopic food.
In 1999, Chinese paleontologists also found two different kinds of jawless, boney lobbed fish in the 530-million-year-old Chengjiang fossil bed in China. One is called “haikouichthy.” It looks just like a modern fish. The boney lobed fish were presumed to be the next step on the evolutionary pathway to humans. Like the other organisms discovered during this period, these fish had fully formed complex organs like eyes and digestive organs.20
Hugh Ross observes that the Cambrian explosion further contained an astonishing 146 of 182 possible skeletal designs:
The fossil record testifies that for the first 85 percent of life’s history on Earth there were no creatures we would refer to as animals. Then, suddenly, in shallow seas and on continental shelves, life-forms manifesting nearly every conceivable body plan appeared. In both the Avalon explosion (575 million years ago) and the Cambrian explosion (543 million years ago) swarms of diverse sea animals abruptly emerged. For the first time in Earth’s history creatures sported appendages, limbs, skeletons, and specialized organs. In fact, of the 182 mathematically possible skeletal designs conceivable for physical life, 146 show up in the fossil records of the Cambrian explosion event.21
Thus, the Bible made an accurate claim thousands of years ago that can be tested against the fossil record. If the Bible were simply an invented book of myths, Moses could not have made these types of accurate predictions about the fossil record. Thus, the fossil record confirms that the Bible is the inspired Word of God with information that no human could have known or independently guessed. “All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness;” (2 Tim. 3:16).
Most advocates of evolution vehemently dispute that God had anything to do with this explosion of life. Yet, the 70 to 75 animal phyla that appear during the Cambrian explosion also appear without a single transitional organism preceding them.
The only multicellular life that preceded the Cambrian explosion (that was not a plant) was the “Ediacara.” (see picture below) This organism appeared in what is called the “Avalon explosion”, 575 million years ago.22 “Ediacarans were similar to plants. They were immobile, tube-shaped creatures that didn’t eat each other.”23 These organisms were so different from anything the preceded them or followed them that some paleontologists believe that they were in a separate kingdom level category “Vendozoa” (now renamed “Vendobionta”).24 Thus, these organisms were not transitional to anything that appeared during the Cambrian explosion.
In 1841, scientists first documented this explosion of fossils in the Cambrian era rocks.25 Although exploration of the Cambrian rocks and scientific knowledge of these creatures preceded 1841, scientists at that time began to earnestly investigate this phenomena.
In 1859, 18 years later, Darwin conceded that scientists could find no evidence of any transitional species before this explosion:
There is another and allied difficulty, which is much more serious. I allude to the manner in which species belonging to several of the main divisions of the animal kingdom suddenly appear in the lowest known fossiliferous rocks.26 . . .
The abrupt manner in which whole groups of species suddenly appear in certain formations, has been urged by several paleontologists—for instance, by Agassiz, Pictet, and Sedgwick—as a fatal objection to the belief in the transmutation of species. If numerous species, belonging to the same genera or families, have really started into life at once, the fact would be fatal to the theory of evolution through natural selection.27 ...
In the sixth addition of his book, he again conceded:
To the question why we do not find rich fossiliferous deposits belonging to these assumed earliest periods prior to the Cambrian system, I can give no satisfactory answer.28 . . . The case at present must remain inexplicable, and may be truly urged as a valid argument against the views here entertained.29
For more than 150 years, paleontologists have scoured the fossil record in the most remote places of the Earth searching for the transitional species that had to exist for Darwin’s theory to be true. Yet, paleontologists have never found a single transitional species dated prior to life’s “Big Bang”.
Faced with this reality, well-known modern paleontologists have conceded that these transitional organisms (which are necessary for Darwin’s theory to be true) simply cannot be found. Many of the following quotes come from the late biochemist Dr. Duane Gish (1921-2013).
For example, the late Daniel I. Axelrod (1910 to 1988) conceded before his death:
One of the major unsolved problems of geology and evolution is the occurrence of diversified, multicellular marine invertebrates in Lower Cambrian rocks on all the continents and their absence in rocks of greater age.30
Professor of Geology T. Neville likewise concedes:
Granted an evolutionary origin of the main groups of animals, and not an act of special creation, the absence of any record whatsoever of a single member of any of the phyla in the Pre-Cambrian rocks remains as inexplicable on orthodox grounds as it was to Darwin.31
Geologist and paleontologist James W. Valentine likewise concedes:
The fossil record is of little use in providing direct evidence of the pathways of decent for phyla or invertebrate classes. Each phyla within the fossil record had already evolved its characteristic body plan when it first appeared. So far as we can tell from the fossil remains, no phylum is connected to any other via intermedia fossil types. Indeed none of the invertebrate classes can be connected with another class by series of intermediates . . . Each of the phyla that developed durably skeletonized lineages during this period did so independently, suggesting that the opportunities for epifaunal life were open to a wide array of adaptive types. Furthermore, many of the durably skeletonized phyla appearing in the Cambrian rocks are represented by a number of distinctive subgroups, classes, or orders that appear suddenly without known intermediates.32
Swedish paleontologist Stephen Bengtson likewise concedes:
If any event in life's history resembles man’s creation myths, it is this sudden diversification of marine life when multicellular organisms took over as the dominant actors in ecology and evolution. Baffling (and embarrassing) to Darwin, this event still dazzles us and stands as a major biological revolution on a par with the invention of self-replication and the origin of eukaryotic cell. The animal phyla emerged out of the pre-Cambrian mist with most of their attributes of their modern descendants.33
Others concede that the fossil record provides no support in explaining this explosion of life:
Most of the animal phyla that are represented in the fossil record first appear, ‘fully formed’ and identifiable as to their phylum in the Cambrian some 550 million years ago...The fossil record is therefore of no help with respect to the origin and early diversification of the various animal phyla...34
As stated above, the allegedly transitional fish have now also been found together in the Cambrian explosion. Even before the discovery of these fish in the Cambrian sedimentary rocks, a renowned paleontologist, the late Alfred Romer (1894 – 1973), conceded before his death that there are simply no transitional species in the alleged fossil record leading to the first appearance of fish:
In sediments of late Silurian and Devonian age [now found in the Cambrian explosion], numerous fish-like vertebrates of varied type are present, and it is obvious that a long evolutionary history had taken place before that time. But of that history we are mainly ignorant.35
Regarding the first appearance of boney-fish, Romer conceded that their appearance in the fossil record is a “dramatically sudden one.”36 Separately, he conceded:
The common ancestor of the boney-fish groups is unknown. There are various features, many of them noted above, in which two typical subclasses of boney fish are already widely divergent when we first see them . . .37
Another prominent evolutionist likewise questions how they could have originated without a trace of any transitional or prior similar organism:
All three subdivisions of the boney fishes appear in the fossil record at approximately the same time. They are already widely divergent morphologically, and they are heavily armored. How did they originate? What allowed them to diverge so widely? How did they all come to have heavy armor? And why is there no trace of earlier intermediate forms?38
Evolutionist Strahler likewise concedes that the: “origin of the vertebrates is obscure - there is no fossil record proceeding the occurrence of fishes . . ..”39 He then conceded:
This is one count in the Creationists’ charge that can only evoke in unison from the paleontologists a plea of nolo contendere.40
The plea of nolo contendere is a plea of a defendant in a court proceeding who can offer no defense. It is like waiving the white flag of surrender.
Even more astonishing, a prominent evolutionist and expert on fishes, Errol White, once openly conceded during a speech regarding lungfishes:
But whatever ideas authorities may have on the subject, the lungfishes, like every other major group of fishes that I know, have their origins firmly based in nothing . . .
I have often thought of how little I should like to have to prove organic evolution in a courtroom of law.41
Professor Jeffrey S. Levinton also asks why all of life’s body plans appeared at once with no new ones continuing to be developed. Indeed, by some estimates, the total number of phyla have actually decreased since the Cambrian explosion:
Evolutionary biology’s deepest paradox concerns this strange discontinuity. Why haven’t new animal body plans continued to crawl out of the evolutionary cauldron during the past hundreds of millions of years? Why are the ancient body plans so stable?42