Psalm 99: Lessons Regarding Jesus’ Promised Millennial Reign

Introduction: Psalm 99 is the last of a series of psalms that are often collectively called the Enthronement Psalms (Ps. 93-99). The Greek Septuagint lists this psalm as a “A Psalm of David.”1 But this does not appear in the Masoretic texts. Others, like Alexander Kirkpatrick (1849 – 1940), a former Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge University, argued that these psalms all celebrated God’s deliverance of the Jews from Babylonian captivity (538-39 BC).2 But this psalm speaks to God ruling over all the nations from a rebuilt temple in Jerusalem. This has not yet happened. Thus, this psalm should be understood as a foreshadow of the Millennial Reign when Jesus will reign from a rebuilt Jerusalem as the righteous King of Kings over all the nations. “All of these psalms tell of the establishment of a righteous kingdom on the earth – on this earth. . . . Whatever occasion may have prompted the writing of this psalm, ultimately it too is eschatological: a righteous and holy king will rule over all the earth. And so in these historic events people were given a foretaste of that glorious time.” (Allen Ross on Ps. 99).3 In Psalm 99, the Bible reveals that Jesus will reign during the Millennial Reign with: (1) sovereignty, (2) righteousness, (3) holiness, (4) answered prayers, (5) mercy, (6) discipline, and (7) majesty.

First, the psalmist wrote of a time when all the nations of the Earth will tremble before God as He rules from His temple in Zion, another name for Jerusalem. During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will return as the promised Messiah to rule over the nations as the King of Kings. He will reign supreme from His rebuilt temple in Jerusalem. Second, the psalmist promised that the nations will celebrate the Messiah’s reign of “justice and righteousness in Jacob.” During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will reign from Jerusalem with righteousness. Third, the psalmist praised the Messiah three times in this psalm for His holiness. During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will reign with holiness as a beacon of light to all nations. Fourth, the psalmist recalled that God, throughout the Jews’ history, answered the prayers of those who obeyed with faith-led obedience. The Millennial Reign will also be a time of blessings that include answered prayers. Fifth, the psalmist celebrated that the Messiah would show mercy and forgive His people. Jesus’ righteous reign will also include mercy and forgiveness. Sixth, the psalmist stated that the Messiah would also be an “avenger of their evil deeds.” This likely references Jesus’ judgment upon those who will rebel against Him at the end of the Millennial Reign. Finally, the psalmist concludes with the revelation that the Messiah will be exalted and worshiped at “His holy hill,” Mount Zion. This foreshadows the worship that Jesus will receive because of His holy majesty.

1. Sovereignty: During the Millennial Reign, Jesus Will Reign Supreme Over all The Nations of the Earth. Ps. 99:1-2.

  • Jesus is sovereign. The psalmist declared: “1 The Lord reigns, the peoples tremble! He sits enthroned above the cherubim, the earth quakes! The Lord is great in Zion, and He is exalted above all the peoples.” (Ps. 99:1-2). “God governs the world by his providence, governs the church by his grace, and both by His Son. The inhabitants of the earth have cause to tremble, but the Redeemer still waits to be gracious. Let all who hear, take warning, and seek his mercy. The more we humble ourselves before God, the more we exalt Him; and let us be thus reverent, for He is holy.” (Matthew Henry on Ps. 99).4

  • During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will return to reign from His restored temple. The psalmist stated that God was “enthroned above the cherubim” (Ps. 99:1). When the Jews traveled through the wilderness, God spoke to either Moses or the high priest from this location (Ex. 25:22; 30:6; Lev. 16:2; Nu. 7:89.) He later spoke to the high priest from this location inside the completed temple (1 Sam 4:4; Ps. 80:1). But His glory later left the temple because of the Jews’ sins: “Then the glory of the LORD departed from the threshold of the temple and stood over the cherubim.” (Ezek. 10:18). The reference to “The Lord is great in Zion”, and that “He is exalted above all the peoples.” (Ps. 99:2) therefore likely referenced the return of God’s Shekinah Glory in a future rebuilt temple. God promised that this would happen during the end times with the return of the Messiah: ‘“And it shall be from new moon to new moon and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all mankind will come to bow down before Me,’ says the LORD.” (Is. 66:23).

  • During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will return to reign supreme. The psalmist declared: “The Lord reigns” (Ps. 99:1). This proclamation is repeated throughout the Bible: “The LORD shall reign forever and ever.” (Ex. 15:18). “The LORD is King forever and ever; ...” (Ps. 10:16). “God reigns over the nations, God sits on His holy throne.” (Ps. 47:8). “The LORD reigns, ...” (Ps. 93:1). “Say among the nations, ‘The LORD reigns; ...”’ (Ps. 96:10). “The Lord reigns,... ” (Ps. 97:1). “The LORD will reign forever, …” (Ps. 146:10). “… let them say among the nations, ‘The LORD reigns.”’ (1 Chr. 16:31). In the end times, Jesus will return and reign supreme “ . . . ‘Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns.”’ (Rev. 19:6). Thus, you can praise Jesus because He is in full control. He is coming to restore His righteous reign over the Earth. “For the kingdom is the LORD’s and He rules over the nations.” (Ps. 22:28). He will come to restore His authority over the nations: “And the LORD will be King over all the earth; on that day the LORD will be the only one, and His name the only one.” (Zech. 14:9). Jesus will fulfill this prophecy when He reclaims the Earth and its people.

  • Jesus’ opponents will tremble before His supreme and unrivaled power. At the beginning of the Millennial Reign, Satan will be bound and placed into the abyss (Rev. 20:1-3). Jesus has no rival to His power: “Who is like You among the gods, LORD? Who is like You, majestic in holiness, awesome in praises, working wonders?” (Ex. 15:11; Dt. 4:35; 1 Kgs. 8:60; Ps. 35:10; 71:19; 113:5). Thus, psalmist stated that, in the presence of God’s power, “the peoples tremble!” (Ps. 99:1). Those who turn from Jesus to embrace the idols of the world will realize that these idols are worthless before His sovereign power (Ex. 18:11). “For the LORD is a great God and a great King above all gods,” (Ps. 95:3; 135:5; 2 Chr. 2:5). Thus, Jesus’ opponents will tremble in fear: “For great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised; He also is to be feared above all gods.” (1 Ch. 16:25). “For great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised; He is to be feared above all gods.” (Ps. 96:4). Thus, you should submit to Jesus and let Him be Lord over your life.

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The Millennial Reign will begin with Satan bound before Jesus and His cherubim5

  • Jesus will reign supreme over all worldly power. Any kingdom on Earth or any demonic power is also nothing next to Jesus’ power. “And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to Me.” (Matt. 28:18). “He who comes from above is above all; the one who is only from the earth is of the earth and speaks of the earth. He who comes from heaven is above all.” (Jo. 3:31). He is “far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come.” (Eph. 1:21). Thus, you should never place your trust in some worldly power. Deliverance comes through faith in Jesus Christ. Jesus is a loving God. He uses His omnipotent power for His greater good (Ro. 8:28).

  • During the Millennial Reign, every knee will bow and confess Jesus as Lord. Isaiah also prophesied the Messiah’s victory over the rebellious nations: ‘“I have sworn by Myself; the word has gone out from My mouth in righteousness and will not turn back, that to Me every knee will bow, every tongue will swear allegiance.”’ (Is. 45:23). Jesus will fulfill this prophecy when He returns to judge the nations: “so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth,” (Phil. 2:10).

2. Justice: During the Millennial Reign, Jesus Will Reign With Divine Justice and Righteousness. Ps. 99:3-4.

  • Jesus will rule with justice and righteousness. The psalmist praised God for His promised future perfect and just rule: “May they praise Your great and awesome name; Holy is He. The strength of the King loves justice; You have established order; You have executed justice and righteousness in Jacob.” (Ps. 99:3-4). During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will rule with justice and righteousness over all the nations of the Earth.

  • Justice and righteousness are the foundations of Jesus’ rule. Out of love and His righteous character, God is just and fair to deliver His people in their times of need. “Do not fear, for I am with you; do not be afraid, for I am your God. I will strengthen you, I will also help you, I will also uphold you with My righteous right hand.” (Is. 41:10). The psalms are also filled with praises for His righteous and just character: “Who executes justice for the oppressed; who gives food to the hungry. The LORD frees the prisoners.” (Ps. 146:7). “The LORD performs righteous deeds and judgments for all who are oppressed.” (Ps. 103:6). “Clouds and thick darkness surround Him; righteousness and justice are the foundation of His throne.” (Ps. 97:2). “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne; mercy and truth go before You.” (Ps. 89:14). “And the heavens declare His righteousness, for God Himself is judge. Selah” (Ps. 50:6). “For the LORD loves justice and does not abandon His godly ones; they are protected forever, but the descendants of the wicked will be eliminated.” (Ps. 37:28). “He loves righteousness and justice; the earth is full of the goodness of the LORD.” (Ps. 33:5). “For the LORD is righteous, He loves righteousness; the upright will see His face.” (Ps. 11:7). “But the LORD sits as King forever; He has established His throne for judgment,” (Ps. 9:7). “God is a righteous judge, and a God who shows indignation every day.” (Ps. 7:11). “Or what great nation is there that has statutes and judgments as righteous as this whole Law which I am setting before you today?” (Dt. 4:8). Evil fills the world today. But you can praise Jesus because He will one day rule over all the nations with just righteousness.

  • During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will reign with justice and righteousness. Jesus will rule as the Prince of Peace with justice and righteousness: “For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us; and the government will rest on His shoulders; and His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. There will be no end to the increase of His government or of peace, on the throne of David and over his kingdom, to establish it and to uphold it with justice and righteousness from then on and forevermore.” (Is. 9:6-7; 16:5). ‘“Behold, the days are coming,’ declares the LORD, ‘When I will raise up for David a righteous Branch; and He will reign as king and act wisely and do justice and righteousness in the land.”’ (Jer. 23:5; Is. 24:15; 42:4; Zech. 9:9-10). The restoration of Jesus’ righteous reign is another reason to praise Him.

3. Holiness: During the Millennial Reign, Jesus Will Reign With Holiness as a Beacon of Light for all the Nations. Ps. 99:5.

  • During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will reign with holiness. The psalmist declared three times in this psalm that God is worthy of worship because He is holy: “5 Exalt the Lord our God and worship at His footstool; Holy is He.” (Ps. 99:5). “Holiness, at its root, has the idea of apartness. It describes someone, or something, which is set apart from other people or things. An object can be holy if it is set apart for sacred service. A person is holy if he is set apart for God’s will and purpose. . . God Himself is set apart in many senses. He is set apart from creation, in that the Lord God is not a creature, and He exists outside of all creation. If all creation were to dissolve, the Lord God would remain. He is set apart from humanity, in that His nature or essence is Divine, not human. God is not a super-man or the ultimate man. God is not merely smarter than any man, stronger than any man, older than any man, or better than any man. You can’t measure God on man's chart at all. He is Divine, and we are human. God’s holiness is a part of everything He is and does. God’s power is a holy power. God’s love is a holy love. God’s wisdom is a holy wisdom. Holiness is not an aspect of God’s personality; it is the essence of His entire Being.” (David Guzik on Ps. 99:5) (italics in original).6

  • Jesus’ holiness will guide the nations. Jesus’ holiness includes a beauty that is unlike anything human eyes have seen: “The LORD reigns, He is clothed with majesty; the LORD has clothed and encircled Himself with strength. Indeed, the world is firmly established; it will not be moved.” (Ps. 93:1). Because He is holy, Jesus’ light will guide the nations out of darkness. “In Him was life, and the life was the Light of men.” (Jo. 1:4). “Then Jesus again spoke to them, saying, ‘I am the Light of the world; the one who follows Me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the Light of life.”’ (Jo. 8:12). “I have come as Light into the world, so that no one who believes in Me will remain in darkness.” (Jo. 12:46). When you feel trapped in darkness, cry out to Jesus for His light.

  • Be holy because God is holy. Because God is holy, He expects His people to be holy as well: “For I am the LORD your God . . . be holy, for I am holy.” (Lev. 11:44). “Be holy because I, the LORD your God, am holy.” (Lev. 19:2). “You are to be my holy people.” (Ex. 22:31). “for it is written: ‘Be holy, because I am holy.’” (1 Pet. 1:16). To become holy, Jesus began His public ministry with a call to repentance. “From that time Jesus began to preach and say, ‘Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”’ (Matt. 4:17). Jesus came “saying, ‘The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent and believe in the gospel.”’ (Mk. 1:15). His disciples also began their ministry with a call to repentance: “Peter said to them, ‘Repent, and each of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.”’ (Acts 2:38). If you say that you are without sin, the Bible says that the truth is not in you (1 Jo. 1:8). Yet, if you confess your sins, Jesus promises to forgive your sins: “If we confess our sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.” (1 Jo. 1:9). What sins do you need to repent of?

4. Answered Prayers: Jesus Will Also Answer Believers’ Prayers. Ps. 99:6-7.

  • Jesus will answer the prayers of His people. The psalmist recalled that God, throughout the Jews’ history, answered the prayers of intercessors: “Moses and Aaron were among His priests, and Samuel was among those who called on His name; they called upon the Lord and He answered them. He spoke to them in the pillar of cloud; they kept His testimonies and the statute that He gave them.” (Ps. 99:6-7). “Moses, though not called a priest in the Pentateuch, performed many priestly acts, such as sprinkling the blood of the covenant at Mount Sinai (Exodus 24:6-8), setting in order the tabernacle (Exodus 40:18-33), consecrating Aaron and his sons (Leviticus 8:6-30), interceding for the people (Exodus 32:30-32Numbers 14:13-19), etc. He is therefore, not improperly, here included among God's priests.  . . . Samuel was not a priest, but a simple Levite (1 Chronicles 6:16-28). He was, however, a powerful intercessor with God, a righteous man whose effectual fervent prayer availed much. He is united with Moses by Jeremiah, as having weight with God through his prayers (Jeremiah 15:1; see also 1 Samuel 12:19-22).” (Pulpit Commentary on Ps. 99:6). Thus, during the Millennial Reign, Jesus will also answer the prayers of intercessors according to His perfect will and timing.

  • The Millennial Reign will bring the blessings of answered prayers.  God promised that He would hear the prayers of those who trust Him (Ps. 91:15). As a sign of his faith, David also praised God in advance for answering his prayer and protecting him: “I was crying out to the LORD with my voice, and He answered me from His holy mountain.” (Ps. 3:4).  “A Psalm of David. Answer me when I call, God of my righteousness! You have relieved me in my distress; be gracious to me and hear my prayer.” (Ps. 4:1). “I have called upon You, for You will answer me, God; incline Your ear to me, hear my speech.”  (Ps. 17:6).  “In my distress I called upon the LORD, and cried to my God for help; He heard my voice from His temple, and my cry for help before Him came into His ears.”  (Ps. 18:6).  “For I wait for You, LORD; You will answer, Lord my God.”  (Ps. 38:15).  If you fail to believe in the power of prayer, God is less likely to answer you.

  • Thank God when He answers your prayers. David also made a habit of thanking God when He answered David’s prayers: “I was crying out to the LORD with my voice, and He answered me from His holy mountain.  Selah”  (Ps. 3:4).  “But know that the LORD has set apart the godly person for Himself; the LORD hears when I call to Him.”  (Ps. 4:3).  “Leave me, all you who practice injustice, for the LORD has heard the sound of my weeping.”  (Ps. 6:8).  “In my distress I called upon the LORD, and cried to my God for help; He heard my voice from His temple, and my cry for help before Him came into His ears.”  (Ps. 18:6).  “Blessed be the LORD, because He has heard the sound of my pleading.”  (Ps. 28:6). Thus, David always praised God:  “Give thanks to the LORD, for He is good; for His faithfulness is everlasting.”  (1 Chr. 16:34).  If you fail to make a habit of thanking Him, you may take Him for granted.  Even in times when he was jailed and persecuted, Paul worshiped God and gave thanks: “always giving thanks for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to our God and Father;”  (Eph. 5:20). Are you thanking God for the prayers that He has already answered and the future ones?

5. Mercy: During the Millennial Reign, Jesus Will Reign With Mercy and Forgiveness. Ps. 99:8a.

  • God is merciful and forgiving to allow sinners to receive His covenant promises. The psalmist celebrated that God showed mercy and forgiveness to His people: “Lord our God, You answered them; You were a forgiving God to them,” (Ps. 99:8a). After their many rebellions, God answered the prayers of intercessors to forgive the Jews. This suggests that, during the Millennial Reign, intercessors will again pray for God’s people following a rebellion against Him. Thankfully, God will be merciful and forgiving.

  • Jesus’ atoning death made God’s mercy possible. Jesus atoned for our sins to give us mercy and the opportunity for eternal life: “and He Himself is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.” (1 Jo. 2:2). “Therefore, in all things He had to be made like His brothers so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.” (Heb. 2:17). “Peter said to them, “Repent, and each of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.” (Acts 2:38). He is worthy of your praise.

  • Praise Jesus for His mercy. Throughout the Bible, God is also praised for His mercy: “Then the LORD passed by in front of him and proclaimed, ‘The LORD, the LORD God, compassionate and merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in faithfulness and truth;”’ (Ex. 34:6). “For the LORD is good; His mercy is everlasting and His faithfulness is to all generations.” (Ps. 100:5). “For Your mercy is great above the heavens, and Your truth reaches to the skies.” (Ps. 108:4). Jesus made God’s mercy possible. You can thank Him both with your praise and by making yourself a living sacrifice (Ro. 12:1).

6. Discipline: During the Millennial Reign, Jesus Will Judge and Discipline Those Who Rebel Against His Just and Perfect Rule. Ps. 99:8b.

  • During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will avenge those who turn against Him. The psalmist also wrote of a judgment of sin that would take place during the Messiah’s reign over the nations: “and yet an avenger of their evil deeds.” (Ps. 99:8b). “This does not refer to the personages just mentioned but to the people at large. The train of thought is as follows:--'There are great saints among us, as in olden time, but, as then, their prayers, while often procuring forgiveness, could not altogether avert punishment for sin; so the present community must expect retribution when sinful, in spite of the mediation of the better part of the nation.’” (Ellicott’s Commentary on Ps. 99:8).7

  • The Millennial Reign will conclude with a time of judgment.  Near the end of Jesus’ 1,000-year Millennial Reign, the devil will be released and deceive God’s people.  The devil, his angels, and the people who reject Jesus will all then be judged  (Rev. 20:1-15).

  • God will not break His promises or forsake you when He disciplines you.  God would still be merciful and forgiving to those who do not reject Him (Ps. 99:8a). He promised that He will never leave or forsake His people.  “Be strong and courageous, do not be afraid or tremble at them, for the LORD your God is the one who goes with you.  He will not fail you or forsake you.”  (Dt. 31:6; Heb. 13:5).  If you have sinned, repent, and never lose hope.  But don’t engage in open rebellion and squander the fullness of His blessings.

  • Allow God to humble you so that He can also exalt you without pride.  God disciplines His people out of love to help them become refined for His use: “So you are to know in your heart that the LORD your God was disciplining you just as a man disciplines his son.” (Dt. 8:5; Heb. 12:6). Thus, during the Millennial Reign, God will test and humble His people so that He can exalt them in heaven without any pride.  “Whoever exalts himself shall be humbled; and whoever humbles himself shall be exalted.”  (Matt. 23:12; Lk. 14:11; 18:14).  “He has brought down rulers from their thrones, and has exalted those who were humble.”  (Lk. 1:52).  “Humble yourselves in the presence of the Lord, and He will exalt you.”  (Ja. 4:10).  “Therefore humble yourselves under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you at the proper time,”  (1 Pet. 5:6).  “Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.”  (Matt. 5:5; KJV).  Your suffering is one way for God to humble you.  Are you staying humble so that God can later exalt you?

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Jesus will judge and discipline those who rebel during the Millennial Reign8

  • Rejoice and worship Jesus because He is faithful to avenge any wrongs against you. Because Jesus is just, believers will not need to right the wrongs against them. Then, as now, believers will rejoice because they can leave justice to Him: “Rejoice, you nations, with His people; for He will avenge the blood of His servants, and will return vengeance on His adversaries, and will atone for His land and His people.” (Dt. 32:43). “Wait for the LORD and keep His way, and He will exalt you to inherit the land; when the wicked are eliminated, you will see it.” (Ps. 37:34). “The righteous will rejoice when he sees vengeance; He will wash his feet in the blood of the wicked.” (Ps. 58:10). “The upright see it and are glad; but all injustice shuts its mouth.” (Ps. 107:42). “and they cried out with a loud voice, saying, “How long, O Lord, holy and true, will You refrain from judging and avenging our blood on those who live on the earth?” (Rev. 6:10). The next time an enemy attacks you, give God praise because He has already won the battle.

7. Majesty: During the Millennial Reign, Jesus Will Share His Holy and Majestic Glory, and His Believers Will Respond With Praise and Worship. Ps. 99:9.

  • Jesus will be exalted because of His holy majesty. Following a rebellion, the Messiah will be exalted and worshiped because of His holy majesty: “Exalt the Lord our God and worship at His holy hill, for the Lord our God is holy.” (Ps. 99:9). “Psalm 99 concludes in verse 9 with a restatement of the call om 995:5 for all peoples to ‘Exalt Yahweh our God, and worship.’ In 99:5 the peoples were called to worship at Yahweh’s footstool, whereas in 99:9 they are called to worship at ‘the mountain of His holiness,’ Zion, Temple Mount. The psalm then concludes by again asserting God’s utter devotion to His own perfect character and the way that separates Him from everything else in existence: ‘For holy is Yahweh our God.’” (James Hamilton on Ps. 99:9).9

Psalm 99:9 | Psalm 99, Psalms, Faith scripture

During the Millennial Reign, Jesus’ holy glory will shine from Mount Zion10

  • Jesus’ glory will be visible to all from His Holy Mount Zion. During the Millennial Reign, Jesus will rule over a redeemed Earth (Ezek. 37:27-28).  At that time, Mountain Zion will have a cloud by day and a fire by night  (Isa. 4:5-6). Jesus’s holy Shekinah glory will also be present in the Temple (Isa. 60:1, 19; Micah 4:1-8; Zech. 2:5, 14:3-9).  You “will see His face. . . [and] the Light of God (“Shekinah glory”) will illumine them forever and ever.”  (Rev. 22:5).  “And He is the radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature, and upholds all things by the word of His power.  When He had made purification of sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high,” (Heb. 1:3).  “LORD, I love the dwelling of Your house, and the place where Your glory remains.”  (Ps. 26:8).  “Be exalted above the heavens, God; may Your glory be above all the earth.”  (Ps. 57:11). People will respond with great joy, gratitude, and worship.

  • Jesus’ holiness will be glorious to experience. Three times, this psalm refers to God’s “holiness”. (Ps. 99: 3, 5, 9). When Isaiah saw God’s glory, he heard it called holy three times: “And one called out to another and said, ‘Holy, Holy, Holy, is the LORD of armies. The whole earth is full of His glory.”’ (Rev. 4:8). This was a way to summarize Jesus’ holy and majestic Shekinah glory: “Holiness is the harmony of all the virtues. The Lord has not one glorious attribute alone, or in excess, but all glories are in him as a whole; this is the crown of his honor and the honor of his crown. His power is not his choicest jewel, nor his sovereignty, but his holiness.” (Charles Spurgeon on Ps. 99).11

  1. Kirkpatrick, A (1906) Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges on Ps. 99; Psalm 99 - Wikipedia↩︎

  2. Allen Ross, A Commentary of the Psalms: Volume 3 (90-150), Kregel Academic (2016) p. 175-6.↩︎

  3. Image credit: (141) Pinterest↩︎

  4. Image credit: (141) Pinterest↩︎

  5. James M. Hamilton Jr., Evangelical Bible Theology Commentary Psalms (Vol. II: Psalms 73-150) (Lexham Academic 2021) p. 204.↩︎

  6. Image credit: (141) Pinterest↩︎